Neuro Science  of Communication

Question 1

From the description given, the patient has a motor speech  disorder (Dysarthria ).

Question 2

This problem may have been caused by a lesion to the nerve that innervates muscles responsible for speech. The Vagus nerve, the X cranial nerve, through the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervates muscles of the laryngeal region. These muscles are involved in speech, and any lesion to the nerve supplying these muscles causes muscle paralysis and problems in speech since the vocal cords will not resonate well. Lesions to the nerve also paralyze the vocal cords, thereby compromising normal phonation and difficulties in swallowing. The ventriculoperitoneal shunting must have tampered with the recurrent laryngeal nerve, leading to these manifestations in the patient. The nerve may also have been injured through other brain conditions that may have not been picked in this patient. Another possibility is that a mass in the neck of throat may be hindering normal movement of the vocal cords.

The patient does not have difficulty in comprehending speech since he can follow physician directions. These rules out lesions to the frontal love that are responsible for speech comprehension and production. The problem is difficulty invoice volume which implicates disorderd vocal cord function. The lesions to the recurrent laryngeal nerve may have been from surgical causes or due to secondary brain condition like parkinsonism and multiple sclerosis.. Lesions of the extrapyramidal and pyramidal tracts, the basal ganglia and the cerebellum may also lead to dysarthria. This wide array of possibilities requires a multisystem approach for diagnosis.


Question 3

The role of  a speech and language pathologist is to determine any derangements in speech and language, and establish the cause of these derangements. Speech is a complex procedure that involves resonance of the vocal cords. In order for the vocal cords to resonate, laryngeal muscles must move to move the cords. With the help of the tongue and lips, speech is produced to the outside.Apart from this, muscles of facial expression are used to finetune speech and express what one is saying more appropriately. Therefore, assessing speech impairment involves assessing the lips, the tongue and muscles of facial expression. As a speech pathologist of this patient, I will assess the movement of lips, the tongue and muscles of facial expression so as to assess speech adequacy. It would seem like the lips, tongue and muscles of expression are functioning properly, but there is impaired resonation of the vocal cords, implicating the paralysis of muscles around the vocal cords.

U[pon discovering the speech and swallowing problems, I will form a treatment plan for the patient, while at the same time referring the patient to an ENT surgeon and neuroscientists to aid in the diagnosis and definitive management. I will involve family memebers to teach them about the speech therapy so that they aid in the home management. As part of the therapy, the patient will be taken through word repetition. The patient will also be taught to use sign language so that he communicates with those around him as treatment is being done. The role of speech therapy is to return the patient to a normal status and facilitate free communication between them and those close by (Roberts, 2014).

Part 4

This patients requires an interdisciplinary approach for management and diagnosis. Apart from the speech and language therapy to enable him have normal speech, a neuroscientist needs to be consulted to aid in the diagnosis. The neuroscientist may identify lesions that may have led to the motor speech impairment.While the impaired speech may be due to neck conditions that are in the confide of an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) surgeon, central causes may have led. The neurosurgeon will assess the 10th cranial nerve to establish whther a lesion to this nerve may have led to laryngeal muscle paralysis. Since the VP shunt was carried out well and successively, the neurosurgeon will assess whether there are brain conditions that may have led to the lesion. The neuroscientist further gives expert opinion about pharmacotherapy that needs to be used as an adjunct to speech therapy. Drugs like Bromocriptine, an ergot derivative, enhances language fluency and word fluency (Xavier, 2007). Cholinergic therapy like Piracetam enhances language functions by increasing the plasticity of the cerebellum. Bromocriptine, which interacts with the catecholamine system, increase the language fluency and word retrieval (Xavier, 2007). Neuroscientists have mastered central nervous drugs in terms of action, dosage and adverse effects and by assessing the patient’s lesions, they will be able to manage the patient well.

A ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist will further aid in the management as they will assess factors that may possibly have impaired movement of the vocal cords, which is necessary for speech production. Conditions like neck masses, cysts, granulomas, haematomas and nodules may be hindering the normal movement of the vocal cords even if the muscles are working well. A ENT specialist futher will assess the airway patency which is necessary for speech h (Deirdre, 2012). The swallowing problems may also be diagnosed by the ENT surgeon, and should they rule out all of these, then it narrows down the diagnosis and management.





Deidre, D., (2012). Types of voice disorders. Retrieved from: Accessed on 2nd July, 2014.

Roberts (2014). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.coma. Accessed on 30th June, 2014.

Wilson, (2006). “Singing in Aphasia; a Case Study of the Efficacy of Melodic Intonation”. Music Perception 24 (1): 23–36.

Xavier, (2007). “Pharmacotherapy of aphasia: Myth or reality?” Brain and Language 102 (1): 114–125.





Neo classical economics

Neo classical economics is compatible with the core concepts of sustainability. Sustainability is a broad term that is difficult to define. However, some scholars have tried to develop definition of the term sustainability. Sustainability is a way of ensuring longevity and support of an activity[1]. Sustainability ensures that there are renewable efforts that support an activity. This allows implementation of strategies that support development. Sustainability help support economic growth of a country. In economics the term sustainability means supporting consumer welfare through time. This is done by maintaining the economic output that is measured by Net National Product. Consumer satisfaction is maintained forever. Neo classical economics focuses on determination of prices, output and income distribution in the market to ensure maximum utility. Neoclassical economics is characterized by efficient allocation of scarce resources[2]. Neoclassical economics is also characterized by emphasis on rationality and utility maximization.  It emphasize on equilibrium. Orthodox economics is represented by neoclassical economics.

There are core pillars of sustainable development. These include environmental, economic and social well-being of people in the current and future generations. This involves ecological sustainability which requires far distribution of scarce resources. Neo-classical economics is compatible with the concepts of sustainability because both focus on equitable distribution of scarce resources[3]. Neo-classical economics represents the 20th century. It is evident that most economies in the world are working towards ensuring equitable distribution of resources. The economies are no longer focusing on one group of people. In the past generation, most men owned means of production because they were educated than women. In the current generation, both men and women have access to education. They both contribute to economic development. Other services such as health, transport and infrastructure are distributed fairly in a neo-classical economics and sustainable economy. Consumers have right of choice and their preferences determine their demand[4].

In a sustainable and neo classical economy, consumers are given rights of production and consumption of goods and services. The government does not have to control everything[5]. This is an effective way of ensuring sustainability. When people have freedom of production, they can utilize their ideas use resources effectively. They run their own businesses that contribute to economic growth. Economic growth is achieved through the taxes that owners of resources contribute to the government. Capitalists ensure that there is competition that helps consumers get variety of products that they demand in the market.

In another instance, neoclassical economics is compatible with sustainability because it is applied in environmental issues. Sustainability ensures that people are responsible and act in a way that makes the world a better place. This involves conservation of the scarce natural resources such as land. Neo classical economics also ensure that natural resources are used efficiently. This ensures efficient and proper use of natural resources[6]. Land is priced and should be used in an efficient manner that contributes to economic growth. For instance, an industry can be built on a land that is not used in other ways. This provides jobs for the current generation. This is also a plan to help future generations. Neoclassical economics ensure profit maximization. This will ensure that they use resources to the maximum to ensure that there are maximized profits. Sustainability on the other hand advocate for economic growth[7]. Economic growth can be achieved when there is maximization of profits. This will ensure that incomes are distributed to people in the current generation. The method of distribution can also be adopted for future generations.

Neo-classical economics ensure social development, a key concept of sustainability. This ensures that strategies are enhanced to ensure that people are socially developed. This is by ensuring access to social services in the economy. Equitable distribution of resources help people have access to social services that lead to improved standards of living. Sustainability ensures improving quality of life[8]. This can be done by ensuring resources are distributed to all. Neo classical economics also ensure there is perfect competition in the market. People have choices and they work hand to improve their social well being. This is characterized by capitalism[9]. The wealthy people may open up businesses create employment opportunities for others. When employment level is high, the economic development can be sustained.  Individuals are able to make decisions with little government interference. People being rational being are able to choose effective means of production. The profits they make help them develop economically and socially. They are able to save their profits for future use. This will ensure sustainability of the current and future generation.

In conclusion, neo classical economics and sustainability are key concepts that ensure economic growth of a country. This involves ensuring sustainable means of production. There is equitable allocation of resources, and no one is discriminated. The government provides services such as free or subsidized education. There is also provision of effective transport and infrastructure. People are also allowed to make economic decisions.


Alvey, James. A Short History of Economics As a Moral Science”. Journal of Markets and

Morality, Vol 2 (1), (1999): 53-73

Daly, Herman. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development. (New York: Edward Elgar

Publishing , 2007)

Ikerd, John. The Essentials of economic sustainability. (Sterling: Kumarian Press, 2012)

Jackson, Tim. Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet. (New York: Earthscan,


Mulder, Peter & Bergh, Jeroen. Evolutionary Economic Theories of Sustainable Development

(2001): Vol.32. 110-134

Pezzey, John & Toman, Michael. The Economics of Sustainability: A Review of Journals

Articles (2002), 1-36

Soderbaum, Peter. Understanding Sustainability Economics: Towards Pluralism in Economics.

(New York: EarthScan, 2008

Tietenberg, T. Valuing the Environment: Concepts in Environmental Economics and Policy.

(Boston: Pearson Addison Wesley, 2007)

Quiggin, John. Zombie Economics: How Dead Ideas Still Walk Among Us. (New York:

Princeton University Press, 2010)

[1] Herman Daly. Ecological Economics and Sustainable Development.( New York: Edward Elgar

Publishing , 2007), 38

[2]John, Ikerd. The Essentials of economic sustainability. (Sterling: Kumarian Press, 2012), 35

[3] Peter ,Soderbaum. Understanding Sustainability Economics: Towards Pluralism in Economics.

(New York: EarthScan, 2008), 13

[4]  Peter ,Mulder & Jeroen, Bergh. Evolutionary Economic Theories of Sustainable

Development (2001): Vol.32. 110-134

[5] James ,Alvey. A Short History of Economics As a Moral Science”. Journal of Markets and

Morality, Vol 2 (1), (1999): 53-73


[6] John ,Quiggin. Zombie Economics: How Dead Ideas Still Walk Among Us. (New York:

Princeton University Press, 2010), 177

[7] John ,Pezzey & Michael ,Toman. The Economics of Sustainability: A Review of Journals

Articles (2002), 1-36

[8] Tim, Jackson. Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet. (New York:

Earthscan, 2009)

[9] Tietenberg, T. Valuing the Environment: Concepts in Environmental Economics and Policy.

(Boston: Pearson Addison Wesley, 2007)


National Air Traffic Service (NATS)

National Air Traffic Service (NATS)

National Air Traffic Service is an air-based service provider operating dual runway airports both in Middle East and Europe. The organization has been able to efficiently and successfully operate 6000 flights on a daily basis accounting to approximately 2 million flights on an annual basis in the United Kingdom’s airspace. There are approximately 35 air traffic control providers in the United Kingdom. However, unlike other ATC providers, National Air Traffic Service is considered is the biggest and as offers the largest service provision  in terms of safety to both civil and military the aviation industry (NATS Case study).

The aviation has been facing challenges in the provision of its services to the customers. Airline based service providers have experienced delays eventually inconveniencing their customers and receiving bad public image eventually ruining their images. There have also been many compromised safety incidents across many air travel service providers. The aviation industry has also been facing challenges in terms of operations such as costs on fuels. Eventually, the challenges faced by the airlines have negatively impacted the service provision in the air-based services.

On the basis of interval rates, National Air Traffic Service accounts experiences delays of about 7.3 seconds per flight. This accounts for approximately 0.1 in average for all delay incidents experienced in European continent. Being the largest provider of the ATC services, the organization has been able to address strategically and reduce the safety incidents experienced in the air service industry. It has adopted innovations that are directed towards safety improvements such as the use of GPS-based devices. The organization has also embraced technological developments whereby it has implemented such developments in improving operations in the aviation industry, such as reducing costs on fuel (NATS Case Study).

The National Air Traffic Service is eyeing on extending its services whereby it will be operating globally implying that it will increase on its revenues. The National Air Traffic Service has strategized on ways that can help improve on customer experience, reducing on carbon dioxide emissions, and fuel savings. According to the Civil Aviation Authority, the organization will be saving approximately 600000 tons on carbon dioxide.  The savings will account for about 120m US dollars. In 2011, the saving stood at 60000 tonnes accounting for 13m US dollars. Fuel savings stood at 19000 tons accounting for 13m US dollars. However, the organization has incorporated the aspect of night travel that is aimed at saving on fuel costs (NATS Case Study).

The National Air Traffic Service has been growing and has extended its operations outside Europe in the provision of services in the Aviation industry. The organization offers a wide range of services and being the largest in the United Kingdom; it enjoys a competitive advantage compared to other service providers operating in the aviation industry. Its reliance and embracement of innovation and strong partnerships have enabled its continued growth.

Richard Deakin is the current chief executive officer at National Air Traffic Service. Before rising to the helm, he was the vice president for the Air Systems Division. He has an experience of more than twenty-five years, whereby prior to joining the organization he spent seventeen years serving different roles as an engineering apprentice at BAE systems.  At the GKN aerospace services, Deakin served as the Group director programs. This was before he joined Thales (NATS Limited, 2014).

Clients can access services direct from the organization. The organization offers a wide range of services where different passengers can access the services provided they meet the travel requirements as per the requirements of the National Air Travel Service.


NATS Case Study. (Attachment)

NATS Limited. (2014). Richard Deakin, Chief executive officer. Retrieved from

NATS Limited. (2014). Seamless exceeding expectations on the ground and in the air. Retrieved from

Listening to music

Listening to music is an essential aspect to the audience. Listening helps audience understand the content and styles used by the composer. The audience has the opportunity to learn the words used by the composer. Listening can be done using different modes. People have different listening capabilities. There are those who can listen to long phrases and others prefer short phrases. Some listeners listen to music frequently because it is interesting. Others listen as a result of situation in which they meet the music than the music itself. Cultural identity also influences listeners. This paper will describe and assess listener’s experience of two different compositions.

I will never give u up by Rick Astley and thinking about forever by Bridget Kelly are two different compositions. “I will never give you up” is a dance-pop genre that was released in 1987.  The listening experience of this song revolves around different aspects of music. Timbre is an aspect of sound that involves duration, pitch, dynamics, articulation and timber or tone color. This song last for three and a half hours. The pitch of the sound is high. Listening to the song from start to the end, the pitch remains high. Another aspect of this song is that there are dynamics present in the song.  When listening to the song, the volume goes high severally in the song (Wright, 2002). The crescendo of the song is heard in the beginning of the song.  It gets higher when singing the chorus.  Decrescendo of the song is experienced when the ladies are singing. They make the sound of the song become softer.  Rick handles the chorus is a distinctive way.  The chorus alternates and has 16th notes that are longer, and has off-the-beat triplets. He delivers the song smoothly and it is evident that Rick knows his singing quite well. He is persistent in his vice considering that he sings as he dances.  He changes the melodies within the song and all are persistent. Rick has an excellent voice and his vocal are also excellent.  Rick’s song has an ornate style of singing. The song has great flexibility. The sing and dance at the same time. The song has beats that are accompanied by instruments.

The other song is “Thinking about Forever” by Bridget Kelly is an R&B song. The song plays for almost 3 and half minutes.  This is a slow song with and Bridget sings it alone.  This is contrast from Astley’s song. The song is fast while the one by Bridget is a bit slow.  Since is a slow song, the duration of the sound is long.  In the sound of the song, the words are made longer which gives the song an appropriate rhythm. The pitch of the sound is low. The song is a slow genre and the pitch is consistent.  The crescendo and decrescendo are found in the song. The singer alternates the pitch from softer to louder.  When the singer starts the song, the sound is softer and it goes loud. However, this song is not as loud as in the composition of Rick Astley.  The song is also smooth and one is able to follow the lyrics. In contrast with Rick’s song, Bridget’s song is easy to learn. It is not as fast as with Rick’s song. The listener can learn lyrics as the singer poses within the song.   By listening to the song, there is combination of instruments used. The use of instruments gives the song a rhythm (Galeazzi, 2012).

The chorus of the song is repeated twice. This gives the listener an opportunity to learn the lyrics. This is a quality in music whereby singers use it to pass the message as well as attract the attention of the audience. the audience can be included in the performance as the chorus is easy to memorize.  To the lovers of slow beat, this is the best son to listen to. The song has an atmospheric beat and quite smooth. The beats are slow compared to the one in the song by Rick (Rick, 1987).  There is no dynamics of chorus in Bridget song.  The singer repeats the same chorus through the song. This is different from Rick’s song where there is change in the way he does the chorus. This dynamic aspect helps Rick’s song famous and vibrant. However, the two songs use both soft and loud pitches at some point.  Both have utilized the use of instruments in order to improve the rhythm of the song.  In both songs, the language is clear. The singers deliver high quality vocals in their songs. One is able to understand the language and each word they use in their songs. The language is simple and can be understood by listeners (Bridget).

Repetition is another aspect of listening to music that is present in both songs. The chorus is repeated after every one stanza. This repetition is quite essential in music. The audience who loves listening to songs looks forward to a repeated part where they can easily memorize. In most cases, listeners love listening to songs that are no complicated. They can get an opportunity to learn the entire song or even the chorus. This aspect of composition is adapted by many singers and composers. The two songs apply the aspect of repetition which is applied in the chorus ( Galeazi, 2012).

The two songs also have a related theme. They both have a theme of love. Rick sings about never giving up of his love. On the other hand, Bridget sings about thinking of someone forever.  The two singers have a strong attachment to love.  They both demonstrate their love in the songs.  A theme is an essential aspect in music. A composer has to come up with a theme before writing the lyrics. The theme gives the composer the direction and helps the singer to have consistent ideas in the song.  This is a subject that the composer wants to put across to the listeners.  A theme will help the singer make the right choice of words (Wright, 2012).

In conclusion, listening to music is an aspect that is important in the society. a composer writes a song with the aim of winning fans who can listen to the music. Fans will listen to music that is interesting to them, and also to support their favorite musician. They also do it because of cultural identity. However, the most important aspect of listening is the elements that are found in the song. These elements include the melody, rhythm, pitch, duration and articulation of the song among others. Different genres of songs may have different elements. For instance, pop music by Rick Astley is fast and high pitched. On the other hand the song “Thing about Forever” by Bridget is a slow genre that has a low voice. Combination of these elements attracts listeners who become active listeners to the song.


Bridget Kelly. Thinking About Forever.

Galeazzi F. (2012). Theorical-practical Elements of music, Parts III and IV.  New York:

University of Illinois Press

Rick Astley (1987). Never Gonna Give You Up.

Wright C. (2002). Listening to music. New York: Cengage Learning.

Morphological, phonological awareness and their development in English-Arabic bilingual children in the UK

Table of Contents

Background of the study. 2

Literature review.. 3

Significance of the study. 4

Research question. 4

Hypothesis of the study. 4

References. 5


Morphological, phonological awareness and their development in English-Arabic bilingual children in the UK

Background of the study

Arabic language has been widely used in both northern Africa and western Asia. In fact, the language has been made the official language in twenty five territories and countries (García, Zakharia & Otcu, 2012). However, despite these countries are believed to traditionally constitute these Arabic populations, there are other countries that home large numbers of Arabic-speaking populations. For instance, both United Kingdom and United States have been experiencing an increasing influx of Arabic-speaking populations (Bhatia & Ritchie, 2013). Students will experience challenges when the mode of instruction changes from their native language into a new foreign language. This has been the case for many Arabic bilingual children in the United Kingdom. Children and students, especially those lacking bilingual skills, have found it challenging to communicate with their colleagues in UK. Following such challenges, it is prerequisite to adopt the concept of bilingual training among the students. This paper is going to give theoretical literature of what has been done previously in regard to bilingual concept.

Literature review

Significant research has been underway over the past few years and is still carried out in the modern days and has been directed towards the concept of general understanding. English is used as an international language implying that everyone should have a good grasp of the language in order to facilitate smooth communication both at regional and international levels (Canado, 2010). Morphological awareness has thus been very essential for students of ESL as it has been found to influence both L1 and L2 (Ryan, 2013). According to Lawrence (2008), morphological awareness alongside reading vocabularies play vital roles in the sense that they help in the acquisition of written vocabularies. This is because the meanings of the English units are installed within the morphemes. Studies show that both morphology (meaning) and phonology (sound) are the key constituents of written language which morphophonemic in nature (Lawrence, 2008).   Phonemic awareness has been classified as one of the most determinants of how children, in their two years of study, will learn to read. According to research, children who exhibit good phonemic awareness skills after completion of their kindergarten year are more become good readers. The reverse is also true (Linan-Thompson & Vaughn, 2007). Most interesting though, is the fact that those people who earlier have had reading difficulties, as well as beginners of English Language Learners, can effectively acquire the skills if appropriate instruction on phonemic awareness is given and adequate amount of time is used for training (Karawani & Banai, 2010). Phonemic awareness has a far reaching impact on later reading. Under the concept of phonology, phonemic awareness is the most complex as it deals with the working of individual sound levels. It is important to conduct progress monitoring in phonemic awareness for the purpose of identifying those students prone to failing (Jeffries, 2006).

Significance of the study

To critical asses the developmental trend of bilingual language among the Arab populations, especially those in the United Kingdom. UK is among other countries that are experiencing an increasing influx in the number of Arab-speaking populations (Kenner, 2008). The study will enable the researcher to validate previous studies on the subject as well as come up with recommendations to address any challenges encountered by learners of bilingual languages.

 Research question

  • How does morphological, phonological awareness have on the development of English skills among Arab-bilingual children?

Hypothesis of the study

  • Morphological, Phonological awareness have a positive effect on the development of English skills among Arab-bilingual children.


Bhatia, T. K., & Ritchie, W. C. (2013). The handbook of bilingualism and multilingualism. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Canado, M. L. P. (2010). The transformation of teacher and student roles in the European higher education area. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(2), 103-110.

García, O., Zakharia, Z., & Otcu, B. (2012). Bilingual community education and multilingualism: Beyond heritage languages in a global city. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Lawrence, J. M. (2008). Differences in Morphological Awareness Skills Between Children with Phonological Impairment and Children with Typical Development. Michigan: ProQuest.

Karawani, H & Banai, K. (2010). Speech-evoked brainstem responses in Arabic and Hebrew speakers. International Journal of Audiology, 1-6.

Kenner, C., Gregory, E., Ruby, M & Al-Azami S. (2008).Bilingual learning for second and third generation children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 21(2), 120-137.

Linan-Thompson, S., & Vaughn, S. (2007). Research-based methods of reading instruction for English language learners, grades K-4. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Jeffries, L. (2006). Discovering Language: The Structure of Modern English. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ryan, J. (2013). Education Reform in China: Changing Concepts, Contexts and Practices. London: Routledge.

social democrats and neo‐liberals claim to support a free society,

Both social democrats and neo‐liberals claim to support a free society, but how and why do their visions of freedom diverge?

Social democracy is a political approach whose idea is that people should be treated equally and provided with security by their state (Hinnfors 2006, p. 26). According to this political ideology, democratically-elected majority should focus towards re-ordering the society and bringing about gradual and legitimate developments. Social democrats are of the idea that the society should be peaceful, evolutional, and transitional. Despite that both social democracy and communism differ in their militancy and totalitarianism, the two share common ideological roots. In its early days, social democracy was regarded to as revisionism. This is because it exemplified changes in the basic Marxist doctrine. On the other hand, neoliberalism can be said to be an ideology constituting economic policies have become common and widespread over the last two and half decades. Liberalism is a term that is used to denote religious, economic, or political concepts. The concept of liberalism is widely used in the United States to prevent social conflict. Neo liberalism ideology advocates for the prioritization of human freedom, free trade, and free ownership of property. According to the above discussion, both ideologies advocate for and are in support of societal freedom. However, as discussed in the following section, their visions of freedom are in divergence (Roy, Denzau, & Willet, p. 30).

Firstly, social democrats are always advocating for the improvement of the social welfare (Tudor, & Tudor 1988, p. 5). According the social democrats, services targeting the social-welfare should be government-funded. The government should support legal entitlements that target to promote the rights of individuals and that the access to socials services should be made universal to every citizen. For instance, education should be universal to everyone, health case should also be accessed universally by every individual, and there should also be universality of other public services such care for the elderly generation and provision of childcare. In other words, under the social democracy ideology, the government is considered the umbrella and that every citizen has a right to enjoy social services and such should be provided by the government. On the contrary, neo-liberalists are against this idea of public expenditure in the name of providing social services (Mcguigan 2004, p. 2). They argue that the government should not be concerned with the provision of social amenities such health care. They also argue that the net-safety for the poor should be cut-down. The role of the government should be reduced in the areas of social services. However, they are in support of those subsidies that are business-oriented. In other words, they are in support of tax benefits that promote business enterprises.

The advocacy of social democrats is directed towards the connectedness of the trade unions. Social democracy ideologists focus more on creating much support towards the concept of collective bargaining rights and are also very advocate for the idea of trade unionism (Cronin, Ross, & Shoch 2011, p. 1). The social democrats are of the idea that every person has equal rights and freedom. It is common that the bourgeoisies have the tendency of manipulating the proletariats. As such, the social democrats steps in and observe the importance of proletariats, thereby recommending the formation of trade unions, which will fight for the rights of the workers. On the other hand, neo-liberalists are opposed to the idea of trade unionism and are always campaigning against trade unions among the workers. They advocate for wage reduction and de-unionization of workers. This would eventually, lead to the elimination of the rights enjoyed by the workers.  The neo-liberalists advocates for the freedom of humans. However, they fail to recognize the idea and importance of the formation of trade unions. They fail to recognize that regardless of an economy having free trade and free ownership, issues of imbalance will be encountered. There will be formation of status classes, between the rich and the poor of the society. This leads to the emergence of bourgeoisies and proletariats whereby, the former are highly likely to manipulate the latter in the absence of trade unions. Contemporary social democracy advocates freedom from discrimination based on differences of: ability/disability, age, class, ethnicity, gender, language, race, religion, and sexual orientation.

Social democrats are of the idea that all members of the society are equal and as such should enjoy equal laws and justice (Demint 2009, p. 29). Cases of discrimination on the basis of social status, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity among others, should be avoided at all costs. People should be entitled to care regardless of the above mentioned challenges. On the contrary, the neo-liberalist are against the idea of ‘public good.’ Instead the approach is of the idea that every member of the society should be the ones to address any problems as far as social amenities are considered. The government has no obligation of providing such services to its citizens and that it the responsibility of every citizen to find solutions to their problems. In this regard then, everyone should cater for their health, security, and education among other social services. Under the neo-liberalism approach, the poor are getting poorer while the rich are getting richer unlike in the case social democracy, where a balance is created in the provision of social-related services. Neo-liberalism is thus seen to be discriminative on the basis of an individual’s background.

Under the social democracy ideology, the government is concerned with the regulation of large business enterprises with the main aim of protecting the environment as well as the workers. This is as opposed to the neo-liberalism approach, which advocates for the deregulation policy (Fernando 2009, p. 220). Neo-liberalism is of the idea that governments should bring down the degrees of regulation. Such include reducing protection on the job safety of the employees together with the environmentt. It is thus clear that social democrats are much concerned about the welfare of their citizens and as such imposes protection of job security and the environment at large. However, the neo-liberalists are very opposed to this notion and for them; they are less concerned about protecting the environment and the job security of the employees. Social democrats combine the capitalist and socialist idea and ensure that a country does not wave towards one side.

Neo-liberalists always advocate for the privatization of the publicly-owned business enterprises (Crouch 2011, np). The neo-liberalist ideologies based their concepts on leissez faire economy, and argued that human are naturally competitive and as such they advocated for free market on the basis of competition (Garnett, & Lynch 2014, p. 445). They observed that there was a need to have free trade and free ownership of property.  Any good and services owned by a state should be sold out to private investors. For instance, healthcare centres, key industries, and electricity among others. Despite being seen as a more efficient system, privatization leads to the accumulation of wealth by the wealthiest and continues to burden the less advantaged of the society, by making them to pay more and more for the goods and services. Example cases of neo-liberalism governments include that of former US president, Ronald Reagan, and former British PM, Margret Thatcher. With the aim to fight inflation, and without worrying about the impact on employment, the two decided to adopt a monetarist program. However, by so doing, the system suffered major capital destruction, since it was starved of credit. This is because the cost of borrowing went up. This policy, adopted by the two heads, went beyond anti-inflationary money supply strategy. However, social democrats were opposed to the idea adopted by Reagan and Thatcher and as such did not follow their model immediately.  They observed that the model adopted by Reagan and Thatcher was meant to inflict a deliberate setback on class. According to the social democrats, the model also aimed at inflicting attacks on the gains of the workers. Over the last 30 years, there had been the adoption of Keynesian economic polies, but that had already collapsed (Roberts 2010, p. 283). As such, social democracy ideologists were determined to reach an anti-inflationary policy, which was less camouflaged monetarist.

Both social democrats and neoliberals hold different views in regard to bourgeoisies. For instance, policies and capital class interests that reversed the bourgeoisies’ declining economic fortunes were introduced by neoliberals. In the years of 1970s, there were economic crisis that had badly hit the capitalists.  At this juncture, the social democrats were not willing to continue with the social compromise. They realized that the economic policies adopted by the working class, bourgeoisies had long failed. They realized that the bourgeoisies, working class, had for the past thirty years developed a major policy redistribution of wealth that acted in the favor of the working class.

However, despite all the above discussed differences, which exist between the two approaches, the two ideologies advocate for the freedom of humanity. For instance, both social democrats and neo-liberalists are of the idea that the rights of women should be given highest priority (Burgess, & Murcott 2014, p. 291).

In conclusion, it can be argued that social democracy and neo-liberalism are directed towards one direction, in fighting for the rights and freedom of the citizens. However, as the discussion reveals, the two ideologies differs in one point or the other. This is because their advocacies are centered towards fighting for the freedom of the citizens but how they do it is relatively different. First, they fight for the improvement of social welfare of the citizens. According to the social liberalists, it is the responsibility of the government to provide such amenities, unlike in the case of neo-liberalists who hold that provision of such facilities rests on an individual capacity. Secondly, Social democrats advocates for unionism of workers and the formation of trade unions as opposed to the neo-liberalist ideologists whose advocacy is against the formation of such trade unions. Thirdly, the contemporary social democrats are against human discrimination on the basis of social background and other demographic factors. Neo-liberalism is seen to be in support since there is no balance in the provision of social services. Under the social democracy approach, the government regulates businesses unlike in the case of neo-liberalism where there is deregulation and little concern is put on the protection of workers and the environment.


Burgess, R., & Murcott, A 2014, Developments in sociology, London, Routledge.

Cronin, J, E., Ross, G., & Shoch, J 2011, What’s left of the left: Democrats and Social Democrats in challenging times, Durham, Duke University Press.

Crouch, C 2011, The strange non-death of neoliberalism, Cambridge, UK, Polity Press.

Demint, J 2009, Saving freedom: we can stop America’s slide into socialism, Nashville, Tenn, Fidelis Books.

Fernando, A, C 2011, Business environment, New Delhi, Pearson.

Garnett, M., & Lynch, P 2014, Exploring British Politics, London, Routeldge.

Hinnfors, J 2006, Reinterpreting social democracy: a history of stability in the British Labour Party and Swedish Social Democratic Party, Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Mcguigan, J 2004, Rethinking cultural policy, Maidenhead, Open University.

Roberts, M 2010, The great recession: profit cycles, economic crisis a Marxist view, Lexington, KY, [S.n.].



Question 2

As the years progresses there has been many economic changes that have impacted on the market prices of different commodities in different countries. International rates of currency exchanges have had an impact on a country’s market prices. The cost of living has been changing over the years thereby affecting the trade outlook both from a national or international front. Melbourne has not been left out and such trends have impacted on its housing market. Both housing prices and dwelling prices are directly correlated and there is a positive curve as year progresses as shown in the graph below;




From the research and the graph provided, it is clear that houses from the lowest quartile in Melbourne sold at $29478 while those from the upper quartile were selling at $43000 or higher, for the year 1976. However, over the years, the trend has been changing in most parts and by 2009, the general pricing changing and the prices changing to approximately $ 607500 or more for the lower quartile and $ 324950 or less in the case of houses ranking in the upper quartile. In the case of units and apartments, the pricing has always and relatively been cheaper and by 1976, the figures stood at $28875 or less in the case of lower quartile and $42700 or higher in the case of the upper quartile. The trend has been increasing steadily and by the year 2009, the dwelling sales figures stood at $310570 and $562250 or more for lower and upper quartile respectively (Taylor & Watling p. 8). The housing prices in Melbourne cannot be regarded as being overvalued; first, according to the research, the prices are nominal implying that the values are far below the real value.  Secondly, based on the developmental changes done on the houses, there will be an increase in prices accompanying such developments. It implies those houses that have been renovated will attract relatively higher prices as compared to those that have not been gentrified. In fact, according to the same study, prices of some of the housing facilities have remained homogeneous (Taylor & Watling p. 8).

Question 3

Market Equilibrium Prices

Perfect competition








P- Price                                    A- Consumer surplus

Q-Quantity                              B-Producer surplus



Effect of buyer’s tax on consumer surplus, producer’s surplus, and overall surplus.

Consumer surplus refers to the benefits enjoyed by the consumer in the sense that he/she pays prices relatively lower than what he/she would be willing and able to pay for a given commodity (SEXTON 2003, p. 206). From the above scenario, the market for houses in Melbourne is perfectly competitive implying that many real estate developers will be willing to sell out the houses at the lowest price possible in order to win an increased number of customers. This is because market prices are determined by market forces, demand and supply. However, the government has stepped in and is levying a fixed tax on the purchase prices implying that the consumers will be forced to pay relatively higher prices. It then implies that consumer surplus will be negatively impacted and the consumers will be required to pay more relative to the equilibrium price.


PM– Market price

PE-Equilibrium price

Considering that the above scenario involves a perfect competitive market, the producers, real estate developers, will be willing to sell the buildings at the relatively lowest price possible. Since this is a perfectly competitive market, there will be the aspect of producers’ surplus. This refers to the benefits enjoyed by the producers by selling their products at relatively higher prices that the normal market price (Besanko, Braeutigam & Gibbs, 2011). In this case, there is an intervention by the government whereby there an intention to impose taxes on the prices of houses that will be levied from the buyers. It implies that there will be some tax burden implicated on the buyers. Considering that this is a perfect competitive market, producers are not the principal determinants of the market prices but rather these prices are determined by market forces of demand and supply. In this case, the real estate developers may be forced to reduce their market prices in order comply to the market forces and this would eventually mean that the producers’ surplus may be impacted negatively as the producers may be forced to lower the market prices.


PE– Equilibrium price

PM– Market price

The producers will be forced to reduce prices from PE to PM in order to attract an increased number of consumers.

The effect on the social welfare will be a mixed one in the sense that it will impact different on the producers, the consumers and the general community. As per the market forces, the developers will be forced to reduce on the real estate prices. On the other hand, the consumers/buyers will buy the houses at a relatively higher prices compared to when there was no imposition of buyer’s tax. Eventually, the renters will be forced to pay relatively higher. It shows that the introduction of buyers’ tax will impact negatively on the social welfare implying that it will be reduced rather than being raised.

An increase in buyers’ tax will lead to an increase in the cities government’s revenue. Any increase in tax will lead into an automatic increase in revenue collection (Krugman & Wells 2006, p. 302).

Question 4

In the case of a monopolist, the demand curve is downward sloping (Taylor 2004, p. 276). According to the theory of demand, demand will only increase if there is a decrease in prices. It implies that, as a monopolist, the government will be faced with a dilemma since selling an extra unit will require a decrease in price. However, the revenue gained by selling one extra item will relatively be lower than the price of that particular item as a firm has to sell all the items at a relatively lower price.




Just like in the case of competitive market, in a monopolistic market, prices will be set when; marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost (Kooten 2011, p. 49). In the monopolistic market, profits will be maximized by producing an additional unit and provided that marginal cost is equal to the marginal revenue. When the marginal revenue and marginal costs are equal, the price that corresponds to the demand curve gives the optimal profit (Floreani & Polato2013, p. 13).


Quantity Supplied

MC-Marginal Cost

MR-Marginal Revenue

1-Productive efficiency: MC=Minimum ATC

2-Allocative efficiency: MC=Market Price

Monopoly profit is given by Price minus ATC and then multiplied by Quantity.

Compared to perfect competition, the welfare, which constitutes consumer surplus and producers’ surplus, is lower in monopolistic market. In order to maximize welfare under the monopoly market, the monopoly has to set its cost below the marginal cost. This will imply that the consumers will be able to able to afford more units thereby reducing the overall deadweight loss to the society (Melischek 2013, p. 19).



BESANKO, D., BRAEUTIGAM, R. R., & GIBBS, M. (2011). Microeconomics. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley.

FLOREANI, J., & POLATO, M. (2013). The economics of the global stock exchange industry.

KOOTEN, G. C. V. (2011). Land Resource Economics and Sustainable Development: Economic Policies and the Common Good. Canada: UBC Press.

KRUGMAN, P., & WELLS, R. (2006). Macroeconomics. New York, NY, Worth Publ.

MELISCHEK, C. A. (2013). The relevant market in international economic law: a comparative antitrust and GATT analysis.

SEXTON, R. L. (2013). Exploring economics. Australia, South-Western Cengage Learning.

TAYLOR, J. B. (2004). Economics. Berkeley Street, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

TAYLOR, E., & WATLING, R. Long run patterns of ho

Medicare is a Federal health insurance program

Medicare is a Federal health insurance program that provides health benefits to consumers through suppliers and providers enlisted in the program. Under the Medicare program, the providers include: healthcare institutions like hospices, hospitals, critical access hospitals, home health agencies and nursing homes. On the other hand, suppliers are agencies for therapy and diagnostics and include laboratories, ambulatory surgery centers and clinics. Medicare benefits mostly those who are over the age of 65 years; for those under 6 years, they qualify if they are eligible for disability benefits or if they are in need of renal transplantation or dialysis. This paper discusses how Medicare makes an impact on today’s healthcare ecosystem. The paper also discusses how health informatics plays a part in Medicare.

How Medicare is affected by licensure, certification, or accreditation standards

State governments oversee the issuance of licenses for a facility to operate a number of hospital beds. Each state has different sets of standards that have to be met for the facility to be licensed. Certification gives a hospital the authority to participate in the Medicaid and Medicare program. Licensure and certification are government programs. However accreditation is a private mechanism that organizations use to assure the consumers that they meet certain quality standards (Shi & Singh, 2011).

Accreditation and certification programs improve the quality of care provided to patients. Accreditation improves the image of the healthcare institution and brings some form of professional pride among the employees in the institution. This will make the employees work hard to maintain the professionalism and quality associated with the accreditation. Accreditation may also improve the image of the institution that will make it attractive to large purchasers of Medicare. However, the cost of accreditation means that the Medicare services provided by the accredited institutions are relatively expensive (Evashwick, 2012).

Explain how Medicare influences each of the following:

  1. Clinical quality

The Medicare program has had a positive influence on the quality of care for the beneficiaries. Medicare uses different strategies to improve quality of care including accreditation, conditions of participation and public reporting initiatives among others. Most of the hospitals enlisted under the Medicare program are accredited. This means that these hospitals are care facilities offer one of the best quality healthcare in the US.

  1. Reimbursement for healthcare services

Under Medicare, many healthcare facilities are no longer receiving reimbursement for health services for preventable hospital acquired conditions (Pratt, 2012). However, there are some insurance companies that are providing cover for these conditions.

  1. Patient access

The reduction in Medicare payments for medical services has resulted in many doctors not keen on taking Medicare patients. This has reduced the access to medical services by the patients under Medicare. For majority of the population, having a good access to healthcare means they can regularly access a doctor, timely schedule appointments with doctors and find new doctors and specialists if need be. This is against the backdrop that Medicare caters for patients who are very vulnerable to complications and may therefore need urgent care and attention. However as has been mentioned, with the reduced Medicare payments, doctors are not keen on the Medicare patients (Hammaker, 2010).


The role of the health informatics professional

The role of the public health informatics professional can be divided into three: the first is the study and description of complex systems including how diseases are transmitted. The second is that they are involved in identification of opportunities that can help improve the efficiency of public healthcare delivery systems; this can be achieved through innovative collection of data and optimum use of information. Third is the deployment, implementation and maintenance of systems that can help in guaranteeing improvement in the healthcare delivery system. Healthcare informatics professionals are well knowledgeable in coding, database management, database security and other information technology processes related to data (Kabene, 2010).

Health informatics professionals are responsible for: analyzing data using complex systems to help policymakers in making decisions and actions; develop data-driven solutions that can improve quality of care provided to patients; coordinating with other departments in a healthcare setting to help reduce costs through strategic analysis of data; the design and maintenance of systems that can collect customers’ feedback on the quality of care delivered, this can help in further improving the systems and processes; in some cases, they act as internal information technology consultants for organizations. Health informatics professional also have the responsibility of ensuring that patient data including medical history, demographic data, treatment and test results, are safe, secure, accurate and accessible. The data should be integrated across the healthcare institution to help save time for the patient when he or she visits the care facility. The healthcare informatics professional also ensures that this data is only accessible to authorized persons as if this is not adhered to, then the patient’s rights will be infringed upon (Nelson & Staggers, 2013). With medical facilities dealing more with tech savvy patients, health informatics professionals are acting as “support” while explaining technical medical terms to such informed patients.

How Medicare has an impact on the health informatics workforce

Medicare has brought new opportunities for the health informatics workforce. This is in the sense of the new roles and responsibilities that health informatics have in measuring quality and compliance of the healthcare institutions (Hovenga, 2010). This will help in guaranteeing quality which is one of the hallmarks of the Medicare program.

In a bid to increase access to Medicare, providers have hoped to increase access and sharing of patient information across their networks. This is something that has to be coordinated by health informatics professionals. In this dispensation, health informatics professionals have been required to have an understanding of the legal and ethical issues of sharing patient information and the limits within which they can share such information. Through this, the professionals can provide advice on the systems that can be developed and deployed to help in sharing such information to improve patient access and quality of delivery (Sridhar, 2013).

The growing population of baby boomers will increase the demand for Medicare. This will have a ripple effect on other health related professions like health informatics. Medicare will therefore fuel growth and development of the health informatics profession. As the health informatics are becoming advisers and teachers, they will need to have better communication skills in order to explain some complex terms and concepts to patients and policymakers in the healthcare delivery system (Sridhar, 2013).





Evashwick, C. (2012). The Continuum of Long-Term Care. New York: Cengage Learning.

Hammaker, D. (2010). Health Care Management and the Law: Principles and Applications. New York: Cengage Learning.

Hovenga, E. J. (2010). Health Informatics: An Overview. New York: IOS Press.

Kabene, S. M. (2010). Human Resources in Healthcare, Health Informatics and Healthcare Systems. New York: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

Nelson R, Staggers N. (2013). Health Informatics: An Interprofessional Approach. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Pratt, L. L. (2012). Let’s Fix Medicare, Replace Medicaid, and Repealthe Affordable Care Act: Here Is Why and How. New York: Author House.

Shi L, Singh D. A. (2011). Delivering Health Care in America. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Sridhar, D. S. (2013). Impact of Healthcare Informatics on Quality of Patient Care and Health Services. New York: CRC Press.




Medical facility risk management plan

Medical facility risk management plan

Overview of risk management

To ensure that the quality of service offered by health facilities is maintained, it is important that a safe, supportive and functional system is put in place to ensure the safety and security of patients and their families, healthcare professionals, volunteers and visitors among other people in the healthcare setting. To realize this goal, healthcare managers should: identify, evaluate and design measures of controlling the hazards and risks, prevent injuries and accidents and maintain a safe environment for the people in the healthcare environment. There should be effective management to ensure proper planning, education and resources to ensure safety and security of the clinical services. All personnel should be educated on the importance of reducing risks and how to identify and report such risks in case they occur. A risk management plan is therefore important for the better management of the risks and hazards in the medical facility.

Purpose of the risk management plan

The purpose of the risk management plan is to ensure that the medical facility maintains the high standards of care given to patients and also ensure that patients, families, healthcare professionals and volunteers among other people are always safe and secure in the facility.

Goals of the plan

The goals of the risk management plan are to:

  • Determine the areas of risk in the different aspects of patient care and safety.
  • Determine the criteria for evaluating different forms of risk that the medical facility may be exposed to.
  • Identify different ways in which the medical facility may respond to risks.
  • Develop programs and policies that are geared towards reducing exposure to risks.
  • Ensure that there is timely intervention in situations that the care given does not meet the intended standards.
  • Establish communication between the risk management department and other departments within the organization.
  • Report risk management activities to the different government authorities as required by law.


The medical facility risk management plan is integrated across all the departments within the organization. The plan is also interfaced with other organizations that can help in rescue efforts in the event of danger.

Definitions and acronyms

Accident: unwanted occurrence that results in personal injury of an individual and damage to property.

Adverse incident or event: this is an unexpected outcome or occurrence that happens during the course of providing medical services to a patient.

Near miss: this is an incident where there is no damage to property or personal accident but where given a shift in time, then there would have been damage and or accident.

Risk: potential or the possibility that something unexpected or unpleasant may happen in the course of healthcare delivery.

Risk analysis: identification of the possible causes, probability and harm that a risk may pose to the organization. Analysis also deals with the steps and options of dealing with the risk.

Risk avoidance: avoidance in any activity or practice that may expose the medical facility to risk.

Risk identification: process of identifying situations, practices or policies that may expose the medical facility and the patients to risks.


This risk management plan is a standard of safety for the operations of the medical facility. The plan outlines the code of conduct during emergency and non-emergency operations. The objective of this is for all members to operate within the parameter of this plan; no member should operate outside the provisions of this plan. The medical facility will implement different controls to ensure the safety and security of everybody (Carroll, 2010). These controls include medical training, vehicle maintenance, protective equipment and clothing, health maintenance, exposure control plan, personnel accountability and the operating procedures. The functional responsibilities of the risk management plan include:

  1. Developing systems and policies for identifying and reporting adverse events and unsafe conditions.
  2. Facilitate the collection and analysis of data to monitor the processes that may lead to adverse events. Some of these include diagnostic testing and preventive screening.
  3. Analyzing the data collected on adverse events, near misses and unsafe conditions and providing the necessary feedback to patients and staff to help improve on their security.
  4. Supporting quality assurance and compliance programs within the organization.
  5. Reducing the probability of adverse events and near misses within the organization.
  6. Reducing the chances of claims by educating both the patients and their families on the importance of risk management.
  7. Establishing a safety management committee within the medical facility to help in implementing the safety policies designed.
  8. Implementing the programs to comply with the statutory regulations.

Roles of personnel

The risk management officer is responsible for enforcing the plan. He is also responsible for managing and updating the management plan to align it with the organization’s mission and values.

All members of the risk management department and the entire organization have the responsibility of ensuring their own health and safety based on the requirements of the risk management plan.

The success of this plan will depend on how all members are trained for compliance and how the risk management officer will monitor this compliance. Members must be aware of their individual department’s risk policies (Youngberg, 2010).

Emergency plans for the hospital

The emergency plans and procedures are developed and integrated within the risk management plan to ensure that proper guidelines are followed in the event of an emergency. The medical facility must be aware that there are other organizations like accrediting organizations and local and state governments may have some statutory requirements regarding to emergency management. The emergency plan includes the following operations:

  1. Continuous update of the emergency plan to ensure that it is up to date with the perceived emergencies.
  2. Conduct annual risk analysis program. This should be done to determine the sources of highest perceived risks to the medical facility.
  3. Communicating and sharing information with other organizations and stakeholders in the event of an emergency. Some of these organizations include the police, fire services, ambulance and other emergency service providers.
  4. Maintaining operational and financial stability in the event of an emergency. This is done to ensure that other patients who are not affected by the emergency have continuous service delivery within the facility.

Contingency plans

A contingency is the plan of activities that are followed in the event of a risk or adverse event. A contingency helps in better management of the risk because the risk management team thinks of the measures to be taken before an adverse event occurs (Kavaler, 2012). The contingency plan includes the following operations:

  1. Conducting regular exercises to prevent, respond and improve the emergency and delivery of services within the medical facility.
  2. Conduct annual risk analysis program. This should be done to determine the sources of highest perceived risks to the medical facility.
  3. While responding to an emergency, the contingency plan should provide a coordinated response. The response should be measurable to the source of the risk.
  4. The organization should liaise with other external organizations including the police, fire services, ambulance and other emergency service providers in order to improve the contingency response.
  5. Conduct testing on the response systems within the organization. The test should be done in consultation with the police, fire services, ambulance and other emergency service providers.

Structure of the department

A well functioning of command and control in the department is important for the risk management operations.

At the helm of the department is the risk management officer who is in charge of the risk management planning and recovery efforts. The department has some other divisions including operations, planning, logistics and finance. There should be good communication between the risk management officer and the heads of the divisions within the department. Through this, information can flow to the enforcing officers.


  1. The medical facility should conduct regular risk assessment and integrate the internal risk assessment with that of the surrounding community. This is because many communities and states have completed a risk analysis of their areas. This information from the communities can be an important starting point for the medical facilities (Kavaler, 2012).
  2. The risk management plan should be developed while integrating all the departments within the organization. This is because the entire facility will be affected when an adverse event occurs. The facility administrator should take a leading role in the development of the plan. However, the responsibility of the development of the plan should be left to the risk management plan department (Carroll, 2010).
  3. The medical facility should share more information on emergency and risks with other organizations involved in ensuring safety and security of the facility. The police, fire services, ambulance and other emergency service providers should be informed to ensure a better coordinated response to an emergency.
  4. The risk management department should be financially and administratively independent. This will increase the capacity of the department and encourage swift response in the event of an emergency (Youngberg, 2010).


To ensure that the quality of service offered by health facilities is maintained, it is important that a safe, supportive and functional system is put in place to ensure the safety and security of patients and their families, healthcare professionals, volunteers and visitors among other people in the healthcare setting. Healthcare managers should be able to identify and mitigate risks before they become adverse. A risk management plan is therefore important to help the managers. The risk management plan should be shared with other organizations like the police, fire services, ambulance and other emergency service to help improve the nature of response. The organization should ensure that the risk management department is financially independent to improve the quality of the response.


Carroll, R. (2010). Risk Management Handbook for Health Care Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Kavaler, F. (2012). Risk Management in Health Care Institutions. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Youngberg, B. J. (2010). Principles of Risk Management and Patient Safety. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.





Mediation approaches to sustainable outcomes for families

Cases of divorce have been on the rise among western families, despite several attempts to solve the same, according to research done by Al-Zamil et al (2014). The occurrence of divorce has evidently increased by 40% to 50% among western families. This leaves several questions to be asked, especially regarding the cause of this increase. Divorce cases have been associated with government encouragement through enactment of law that enables people to call it quits when things get bad in families. Other factors that have been explained to cause the many divorce cases are among them pressure from economic conditions. This has pushed women to be away from homes working in order to earn. This does not sink easily into their husbands and becomes a cause of problems that see the couple get apart.

Several approaches for addressing the issue of divorce have been put in place. These are aimed at keeping the couple as a family. The approaches include formulating of marriage savers program, best friends program as well as covenants of community marriage. These all involve having the couple get helped to solve their problems by people that are close to them. The first mentioned program involves intervention of church members, the second involves intervention of best friends and the last involves intervention on close society members, according to seminal studies of Wallerstein, Lewis and Blakeslee (2002, on the adverse effects of separation and impact on the involved families. Since the above three methods involve intervention of a third party in solving the dispute between the couple, this is mediation. All families at some point experience chaos and fights that could result in divorce. These experiences occur in a cycle to all families, as research done by Haley (1973) and further expanded by Carter and McGoldrick (1989) explains, resulting in many breaking up. This essay therefore seeks to analyse the methods of mediation that bring sustainable outcomes for families that are in the divorce process, which could make the process more peaceful and minimize the suffering that could result among children.

The increased focus on the consequences of marital separation on families has generated mixed findings, according to Kim (2012). While a number of studies have pointed out that family members may be able to exhibit good coping skills after divorce, other studies have contended that those affected individuals, especially children, are vulnerable to this negative encounter, including their emotional, behaviour, social, and academic aspects as Boyle (2008) and Taylor and Andrews (2009) observe. The attachment theory posits that emotional bonds are highly important and that fulfilling individuals’ needs for care and affection remains fundamental to one’s being, as research conducted by Fidler&Bala (2010) explains. In particular, the emotional connections that are established between parents and children are crucial for their emotional health (Van Nijnatten&Jongen 2011). When stress and conflict is experienced, children may develop high levels of anxiety and apprehension that they may be deprived of one parent Van Nijnatten & Jongen (2011) explain in their research. While there has been a widespread argument when it comes to attachment, mothers’ remain crucial. This however does not dilute the fact that children need to keep attached to their fathers. Where upon divorce children go with their mother, they lack their father’s attachment, and the mother’s is lost when they are left with the mother. This denies them the opportunity to experience a balanced life. It is this that sees children into getting themselves into relationships in which they do not understand who they are. A case of this is irresponsible fathers in future, and also following their parents’ suit to divorce when they marry, according to Strohschein (2005).


On the whole, the impact of marital separation has widely focused on the wellbeing of children, which has been conceptualized into a number of viewpoints, such as family conflict, parental absence, and financial concerns. When it comes to parental absence, divorce has been found to have negative effects on the social growth of children particularly because of the lack of strong interactions with both of their parents, if both parents have a significant role in the children’s social development as Ziffer, Crawford & Penney-Wietor (2005) explain. Females in most cases experience looses in financial resources after separation, and families with single mothers are likely to go through financial constraints. This is following the aid they get from their husbands in marriage. Consequently, children from such families may experience reduced access to quality education and sufficient services for proper education, according to Pike (2013. The children as well get exposed to wrong company and this increases their likelihood to develop ill habits. With the perspective on family conflict, the problems experienced by children who come from families with separated parents are not caused by family environmental conditions in accordance with Fidler&Bala’s ( 2010) explanation. Rather, the negative environment at home brings these about before and after the family’s divorce. Divorce brings about stress, apprehension, and insecurity in the children, thereby adversely influencing their developmental outcomes (Ziffer et al. 2005).

Due to less resources of the parent that is left to rear the children alone, the education of children is affected (Sun & Li 2009). As compared to children from married families who are staying with both of their biological parents, children who come from single and stepparent families tend to have lower test scores. Their ability to graduate from high school and attend college is reduced, which translates to a lower level of education among them. One of the most common Another adverse outcome of divorce is the deprivation of resources as the parents’ financial and social capitals. Lower living standards have also been associated with these children because of decreased educational budget and increased possibility of experiencing economic deprivation (Lebow&Rekhart 2006). Divorce also reduces the time that a parent is able to allocate his or her children, as she is alone and is out for long hours looking for income. With reduced time and contact between parents, children, and other family members, reduced access to social resources may further contribute to inhibiting a child’s development. While family resources remain crucial for the development of younger family members especially children, these do not necessarily have to be provided solely by the parents (Sun & Li 2008).  For instance, supplementary support may be obtained from extended family members and other relatives that can be highly beneficial especially in times of family crisis. Moreover, siblings are likely to offer emotional support to one another when parents have separated. The protection provided by siblings may actually be deemed as a factor that can reduce stress in families that are going through and/or have gone through marital separation. Such functions for stress relief may contribute to the reduction of the unfavourable outcomes of divorce.

Ability of family members to adjust to the new life following divorce comes in a long process. For instance, the influential findings of McConnell and Sim (1999) have highlighted that although outcome research emphasizes the effects of parents’ separation on children, process-related studies draws attention towards the factors that are linked to post-divorce adjustment. Transition difficulties will often be attributed to the parents’ inability to become accustomed to new life changes which can subsequently generate concerns in providing care and support for their family members, particularly the children (Chaitali 2012). The main needs of these individuals to be able to overcome unfavourable emotional and material consequences (e.g. economic hardships, parental conflict) include warmth and intimacy, positive role models, and discipline, among others. These are of great importance because marital separation brings about changes in their families that are shown in the decline of the relationship quality among between parents and/or between parents and their children (Al-Zamil et al. 2012). Such family members are also more exposed to interpersonal conflict and are likely to experience reduced standards of living. Therefore, it remains highly important to further explore the specific effects as well as the overall impact of marital separation to determine appropriate and effective interventions for families undergoing such experiences.

Approaches to mediation for marital separation were conceptualized as divorce education programs with which a number of main thematic patterns were found particularly for parents. These included their personal adjustment with the divorce process, coping and responding to changes, and parenting, as cooperative parenting. Programs focusing on children underlined these young individuals’ responses to divorce, as the impact of separation on children, their developmental phases and aiding children to deal with divorce, as understanding and addressing the distress of children, improving children’s adjustment. Court-focused programs also emphasize mediation and family responsibilities that typically focusing custody and rights for visitation. To promote rebuilding after separation, the use of divorce adjustment groups have been found to be helpful because these provide educational and dynamic experiences for individuals to cope with the all the important aspects of divorce (Taylor & Andrews 2009). Aside from the psychological and social outcomes of the separation, other concerns relating to economic and legal issues should be addressed as well (Weir 2006). Other studies that have drawn attention towards programs offering services for families experiencing marital separation have highlighted ample and relevant findings, particularly on the effectiveness of such interventions. It has also been asserted that group interventions, counselling services, and school-based interventions are of paramount importance for children of divorced parents. The goal of these approaches is to generate feelings of support, make corrections to erroneous understandings of divorce, and offer tools for dealing with the difficulties relating to parental divorce (Pitcher 2010). A unique benefit of group interventions focusing on the children is that a higher number of children from low-income populations can also take part in such programs as opposed to individualized meetings. Schools are natural settings where support can be provided for children (Esmaeili et al. 2011). Problems relating to parental separation may become noticeable in the school settings, resulting to challenges and decreased performance at school.

Group therapy has been found to be a highly effective intervention as it allows children of divorced parents to take part in a wide range of tasks and activities that enable them to develop coping skills associated with improved adjustment to their parents’ separation. As pointed out in the findings of Connolly and Green (2009), protective intervention should be provided for children who are undergoing such group intervention because this will aid them in handling parental separation through the use of specific strategies that occur within the group. As such, children will become more capable of enhancing their skills in problem solving as well as attain positive restructuring, thereby increasing their abilities and confidence in themselves to cope.

In a research conducted by Guli (2005) on parent consultation focusing on emotional, behavioural, and social issues, it was found that conjoint behavioural consultation that involves parents and teachers can be more advantageous in generating favourable changes. The teachers are well positioned to explain what children need after the divorce. Divorcing parents can collaborate with counsellors who can respond to the emotional and psychological needs of their children. Furthermore, parent education groups can provide parents with relevant information based on empirical evidence with regards to the impact of separation and divorce on their families. There has been empirical support in terms of the effectiveness of parent groups and their impact on the reduction of psychological problems and development of competencies after separation. Randomized and experimental studies such as that of Wolchik, Sandler, Weiss and Winslow (2007) have shown the useful effects of parent groups on the relationship quality between the child and the mother and/or father, as well as discipline and psychological health outcomes among the children.

While there has been various intervention programs for family members affected by parental separation, particularly the children, analysis of results can be reviewed further. Looking into the findings of empirical evaluation research, it was found that results have been commonly consistent and highlights the effectiveness of group-based and school-based interventions for families experiencing parental separation (Cookston, Sandler, Braver &Genalo 2007). Nonetheless, such programs are in need of further research and evaluation particularly because many of these studies have been associated with methodological issues, such as an emphasis on random sampling, lack of control groups, inadequate ability to replicate findings, and the integrity of the intervention, which can influence the level of rigor of such studies (Wilkinson 2005). There has also been limited research that draws attention towards specific components of change and considers potential intervening constructs, as socio-economic conditions, ethnic group, and specific attributes of family members. In analysing interventions relating to the parents and to the children, it has been argued that child-focused approaches are more effective in reducing the negative effects of divorce on children, in modifying their attitudes towards such experience, and in reducing disturbances such as problematic behaviours outside of home. However, because certain approaches are limited in terms of their effectiveness on children’s coping with parental separation, the establishment and assessment of more comprehensive programs are of paramount importance.


On the whole, this paper has placed emphasis on the impact of marital separation on their families along with the interventions that aid in reducing the negative affects of divorce and supporting family members especially children to cope with these experiences. The separation of parents brings about changes in the environment of their children, particularly in terms of the relationship quality between the child and the parents, experience of interpersonal conflict, and reduction in the standards of living. As families go through a series of processes that affect their relationships and the adjustment of the children, family and life circumstances during and after divorce are expected to change as well. Marital separation is expected to bring about adverse economic consequences particularly a decline in resources for young family members’ educational development, hence an increased dependence on welfare. With negative changes in socio-economic status, children from divorced families will experience disadvantages particularly in terms of educational achievement and social development. Regarding emotional effects, these can manifest in children’s psychological adjustment, aggression, behavioural problems, distress symptoms, and negative feelings about one. Due to these considerable effects of marital separation on families, it is of paramount importance to provide effective interventions and mediation approaches that can contribute to the achievement of long-term outcomes. A comprehensive evaluation of the specific situation of every family, for example, remains to be a crucial process that should be founded on concrete factors as opposed to focusing on assumptions. Group-based interventions for parents and children, parent education programs, and school-based counselling services for children have all been found to have a significant impact on improving family and life circumstances, such as parents’ increased understanding of post-divorce processes, children’s performance in school and reduction in their behavioural problems. However, there remains a need to conduct extensive studies that address the methodological issues attributed to past studies in order to determine the interventions and approaches that limit producing sustainable outcomes for families when going through divorce. 


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