The Rise of ISIS in Middle Eastern and Global Affairs

The history and the rise of Islamic State (ISIS) reveal a complex revolutionary Islamic movement that the world has found it difficult to tame. Currently, this terror group occupies a large territory in US and Syria. It has toppled the Syrian government and imposed itself as the legitimate government of Syria. In 2014, its leader, Al-Baghdadi declared Syria an Islamic state Caliphate that is to be governed strictly on Sharia laws. He also appointed himself the Caliph, meaning the God’s deputy on planet. Apparently, ISIS is mobilising the Muslim community to declare their allegiances to the religion of Islam and must accomplish the duty of building an ‘Islamic pure world.’ The ISIS has also opened its own Islamic schools; it collects taxes and enforces harsh justice system. It has a following stretching across The Middle East, Europe, Asia and North Africa. Its fighters are international. They represent the many different global cultures. Its recruitment strategies are unique from the famous terrorist groups.  ISIS derives its massive revenues from the oil fields in Syria, taxes imposed on locals, kidnapping and many others to keep hold on its thousands of fighters. With the terror being the contemporary global issue, the rise of ISIS is a risk to the global community. The war on terror has being complicated by the massive growth of the ISIS through its vigorous global recruitment. On the other hand, various jihadist groups including the former Al Qaeda sympathisers have joined the ISIS movement. It is estimated that about 1000 fighters are recruited daily. It is therefore imperative to conclude that rising of ISIS is a global contemporary issue.  Its ideology of the Caliphate, the massive wealth and its recruitment strategy is complicating the war on terror.  

Explanation/analysis of the historical facts/evidence in relation to the time at which they happened

The sudden emergence of ISIS on the international scene, have prompted a various explanations regarding its origin. It is important to understand that the history of ISIS stretches back to 1990s. The group was founded by Abu Musab al-Zarqawia, a Jordan citizen. He participated in the Afghanistan soviet war as a journalist covering the war. In 1992, he returned back to Jordan but in 1999, him and some al-Qaeda members planned a terrorist attack known as the ‘millennium plot’. The plan failed and Zarqawi had to flee Jordan to Afghanistan where he met Osama Bin Laden. In 2001, he sought refuge in Iran after fleeing Afghanistan. Before, America invaded Iraq, he had travelled to Kurdish, the northern region of Iraq where he collaborated with the regions Islamist organization known as Ansar al-Islam, which had been formed in 2001. In 2003, he joined insurgents in fighting the US soldiers. In 2004, his Islamic Jihad Organisation collaborated with Osama. He became the recognised representative of al-Qaeda in Iraq. He adopted a jihadi strategy of killing the innocent Shi’ite population.  He despised Shiite and the Sunnis. He hated them for being pro Americans.  On the other hand, his strategy was to scatter the US effort of forming a government to stabilize Iraq. Despite the disapproval from Osama, Zaqawi employed the ‘Islamic legitimacy’ a philosophy he derived from his jihad beliefs to exercise mass killings against the Shiites (Sekulow, p 259).

In 2006, the American forces killed Abu Musab al-Zarqaw. His position as the leader of al-Qaeda was taken by Abu Hamza al-Muhajir. Months later, an umbrella network was formed. The network was named as Islamic State of Iraq. Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was appointed its leader however; the al-Qaeda members who had been recruited by al-Zarqawi dominated the network. Between 2008 and 2011, the US and the Iraqi forces, waged an extensive military campaign against the ISI and other jihad groups. In 2010, the American and the Iraqi forces killed both Abu Hamza al-Muhajir and Abu Omar al-Baghdadi. The leadership of ISI was then inherited by Abu Bakr al-Baghdad. The unfolding truth is that long before America waged a military invasion against the ISI network, in the year 2000, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi had been constructing a jihadi infrastructure in Syria. It is in Syria that the al-Qaeda recruited jihad operatives to carry out attacks in Iraq. At the time, Syria was harbouring activities of a terror group right in its doorstep while the world was focusing its nuclear program (Isakhan, p. 106).

Analysis of the historical facts

According to Warrick, the foundation of ISIS was because of three factors.  The first factor is a prolonged history of conflict and dictatorial governance in the entire Middle East. Second factor is the improper, missteps and mistakes by the western world such as the invasion of Iraq, the handing of Zarqawi as an international fame prior to the invasion of the Iraq. Zarqawi was falsely identified as the key link between Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda thus disregarding other key player of jihadi. Finally is the influence of Zarqawi. Another mistake that facilitated the rising of ISIS according to Warrick, is the 2011 pulling out of the US soldiers from Iraq. It therefore left the US and the western world with lack of intelligence about the activities of the ISIS. Regarding the history of dictatorial governance in the Middle East, Warrick attributes the trend to quick dissolutions of the authorities in this region and dependence on the government by the reining authorities to retain the legitimacy of their governments. However, when these governments that is Syrian and Iraqi governments lost their authorities, the ISIS rose to fill in the power vacuum.  With the available weak authority and the need to strengthen the network, ISI began breaking out the al-Qaeda prisoners who had been jailed in the Iraqi prisons. More than five hundred ruthless al-Qaeda fighters were released (Warrick, p 253).

The released fighters provided enough military strength for the ISI. By the end of 2011, the network sent it fighters in Iraq to fight against the Assad regime. In 2011, ‘Al-Nusra Front’ was established. Its purpose was to add power base to the ISI outside Iraq. However, it is the desire of Al-Nusra Front’ to become an independent jihadi organisation that led to the unification of the two organisations thus becoming the ISIS. Since its invasion of Syria and declaring it an Islamic state, ISIS has grown stronger.  Its brutality has led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Syrian Civilians. The world is now faced with immigration crisis caused by nine million refugees who have fled the civil war in Syria while in Iraq, over 3 million people have been misplaced. Besides, it is imperative to acknowledge that globalization has played a significance part in harnessing the growth of this terror group. Moreover (Global Terrorism Index, 142).

Significance of the historical facts

Contrary to al-Qaeda, that has globalized jihadist ideologies; the ISIS is not pursuing utopian global goals. The group has evolved its ideologies to a regional context. Its setups for building regional Islamic states are more realistic and tangible to their sympathizers. Its evolution solely relies upon the many erupting failing states to which, it camouflage with the local rebels in the pretence of liberation to the locals (Cockburn, p 248). The advance technology has facilitated interconnectedness. It has enable ISIS to instantly reach out to its followers and even appeal to potential followers. It has made the apocalyptic war between the muslims and non-muslims to be attractive to even the disaffected youth across the world. Its doctrine of ‘caliophate’ is attracting thousands of youths across the world who not only believe in such doctrine but are psycopaths who are out to seek adventure. Evidence of how the ISIS is exploiting globalisation is the resent declaration by it spokesperson Abu Muhammad al-Adnani that Muslims in the western countries to kill any non-Muslims they come across. Such statements are only meant to fuel tension to the world despite its already polarized method of recruitment (Cockburn, 286).

The global community is jittering due to the fact that unlike other terrosrist groups, ISIS does not depend on financial assistance to sustain its terror operations. The group has established its tax systems and impossed it on the Syrian people. It loots, collects rumsorm  and sells oil from the oil fields it controls in Iraq and Syria. The significance of its financial capacity is that it is able to finance a large scale and sophisticated type of terror to the world. Economic experts too are worried that the ISIS conflict in the Middle East may disrupt the oil markets globally if it seizes the major oil fields in these region (Bennis, p 266).Unfortunately, the greatest challenge is how to counter the efforts of ISIS. More immigrants are gaining interest in joining the group. They have the individual desire to leave in a world that is free from the western influence or to be the caliphates. In the face of these challenges, the global community must accept that ISIS is a product of a history based on events that it played a role. However, contrary to the previous military wars it waged on terror groups, the ISIS requires a different approach. The global community must denounce the military solution and embark on a political solution to counter the influence and the future greater damages posed by this group. The world must also promote good governance to cut out the breeding environment for such organisations (Sagini and Patterson, p 183).

Conclusion

Therefore, it is imperative to conclude that ISIS was established during the war on terror in Iraq.  It was formed by leaders like Abu Musab al-Zarqaw who believed in the doctrine of jihad. Its leaders took advantage of the volatile government to propagate and strengthen the activities of the ISIS. Most importantly, without the knowledge of the world, ISIS existed as early as 2000. The group currently controls Syria and Iraq. It has an appealing recruitment method that is attracting thousands of youths across the world. The ISIS has also complicated the war on terror making it a global contemporary issue. The biggest global fear is that it has a massive wealth than any other terror organization. It is suggested that the world must use a political instead of military approach to counter the ISIS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cited From

Cockburn, Patrick .The Rise of Islamic State: ISIS and the New Sunni Revolution. An investigation of the chaos in Iraq and Syria.Verso, London, 2015. 192 pp.

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Bennis, Phyllis. Isis and Syria: The New Global War on Terror. Oxford: New internationalist, 2016. Print.

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Sekulow, Jay. The Rise of Isis: A Threat We Can’t Ignore. , 2014. Print.Bottom of Form

 

Warrick, Joby .The Rise of ISIS from Regional Terror to Global Threa. 2015. Print.

Sagini, Meshack M, and Thomas E. Patterson. Globalization: The Paradox of Organizational Behavior : Terrorism, Foreign Policy, and Governance. 2015. Print.

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Cockburn, Patrick. The Rise of Islamic State: Isis and the New Sunni Revolution. , 2015. Print.

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Isakhan, Benjamin. The Legacy of Iraq: From the 2003 War to the ‘islamic State’. , 2015. Internet resource.

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Global Terrorism Index 2015: Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism. Sydney: Institute for Economics and Peace, 2014. Internet resource.

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Other People’s Money by John Kay

In his book, ‘Other people’s money’ John Kay argues that the expansion of the financial sector over the last 40 years has resorted to damaging the economy and the society. He states that a well functional financial system is inevitable for a country’s economic prosperity, however, that does not imply that if a country has a larger financial system, then it is most likely to be prosperous. He acknowledges the difficulties involved in assessing the economic contribution of the financial industry. Such difficulties according to Kay, is because of the complexities involved in interpreting the reports on financial activities regarding output profitability of those activities. Never the less, Kay believes that the profitability of the financial sector has always been overstated and that its production value too, has always been misreported. He, therefore, declares that the industry contributes little to bettering the people’s lives and creating efficiency of businesses. He asserts that the sector can do a lot to advance economic and social goals of the individuals and businesses but apparently, the sector has done little.

In assessing the function of finance, Kay recognises that the modern financial sector has focussed on trading with one another at the expense of it original purpose or serving as trusted intermediaries of household borrowers, savers and even the businesses in the world’s economies. He also argues that financial intermediaries are not able to create wealth hence today’s financial markets realistically, do not raise capital for any emerging productive enterprise (Kay, p88). He notes that the causes of global financial crises are directly linked to the structure of the financial industry. He also ties the collapse of the real values of the financial sector to the era of financialisation and the transition from focussing on customers and the economy to trading-based and transactional financial entities. This subsequent shift in values, behaviours and institutions affected the corporate sector. He also claims that financial institutions fund political campaigns. It is the reason the political leaders are propagating the propaganda that Wall Street is critical and unique hence it should be protected. Kay, therefore, proposes a set of reforms. The reforms include shortening the chains of intermediation of the financial institutions, create a more specialised financial institutions that prioritises into the interests of its customers, restructuring of the sector, employing new regulations and appalling all the political forces that are keen to obstruct reforms.

In reference to 2008, financial crisis, Kay is concerned with the change of culture. He fathoms that the culture of the financial enterprises and their structures have worsened. Financiers have moved away from the sole purpose of serving customers to focusing on using their customer’s money to make short-term profits. Kay refers to this process as ‘financialization’ (Kay, Pg. 67). In this process, the financial sector is always keen to increase its the salaries of its members. It is evidenced that the financial sector has grown excessively at the expense of its purpose that is required from them by the businesses and the household (Kay, p 34). Eventually, the institutions and the money that make up the financial sector are so conjoined that a failure of one institution causes a severe risk to the overall economy. By tolerating such, level of high risk through allowing financial firms to grow too large, the governments across the world have rubberstamped the notion that the sector is typical of extraordinary profits.

Certainly, it is not in order to assume that reducing complexity and decreasing interconnection of the financial system is feasible. One has to note that 2000 collapsing of Internet bubble that led to a slight economic distress was because a margin debt did not finance the stock bubble. Hence, was not because of its less interconnectedness with the world. However, there is a considerable truth regarding Kay’s criticism against the impact of the financial sector on the economy. The Little growth of the financial sector in the last decades has benefited the society. The little benefit is because of too many bad financial players who are only interested in profits. However, it is critical for Kay to acknowledge that financial innovations have always been linked to economic growth; therefore, it is improper to oppose financial innovations (Kay, p.129).

One of the other Kay’s key arguments on the profitability of the financial sector is that bank accounts are so lengthy and impenetrable. It is, therefore, difficult to ascertain their annual profitability per the banking system. He asserts the proliferation of misunderstanding such complexity in the financial sector has been intentional. Kay’s point is right. Former Federal Reserve Board (FED) Kevin Warsh concurs with Kay’s assertion. He states that there is still no approach of comparing financial institutions’ exposure to each other in an efficient and timely way. He concludes that the rules by Securities and Exchange Commission’s on financial disclosures of financial institutions are only obfuscating more than they inform. It is because of such confusion that Kay declares that bankers are smart but not that smarter to understand their actions. What the bankers know is the value of the financial industry and its complexity that even the public and regulators cannot comprehend (Kay p.101). It is the reason he wonders why financial sector is so profitable. He compares the illusion of its profitability to the passing around bits of papers, which in real sense does not add value to the paper. Therefore, going by Kay’s metaphor, the financial system is complex and its complexity is intentional thus made to serve the interest of its owners (Kay, p. 161).

He is adamant to state that the growth of the financial sector is just a representation of wealth appropriated outside the financial industry. However, unexpected of him, Kay echoes a populist statement by acknowledging the critical role of the market, profit and proper functioning financial system for the modern economy to prosper. Hence, begs the question, what need to be done? According to Kay, in reaction to the financial crisis, so much regulation have been made. Unfortunately, the regulations have been ineffective.  In his view, the prescriptive rules have only undermined the ethical standards rather than enhancing them. He, therefore, proposes regulatory philosophies that are presented in the form of principles. These principles should be related to the financial structures. His recommended principles include financial institutions dealing with customers more than they deal with each other, sanctions against those break the set financial ethic. Finally, the government must treat the financial industry just like any other industry (Kay, p.119). His reason for suggesting these principles is that regulations are expensive because they involve much compliance costs. Therefore, the change of culture as the main principle will be significant in enhancing ethics in the financial industry.

Therefore, it is imperative to conclude that the modern financial institutions do not serve the interest of the customers but rather using the customers’ money to make quick profits by trading among each other. The financial sectors have also complicated the financial system to their understanding thus making it difficult to evaluate the profitability of the sector. It is also true to state that financial institutions do not contribute to the growth of the economy. However, its strong finance is derived from what customer deposits, which prompts Kay to term it as people’s money. Unfortunately, according to Kay, the interconnectedness of financial institutions is a risk to the world economy in a case where one financial institution fails. Though Kay acknowledges the importance of the financial sector, he recommends that its effectiveness depend upon the principles but not regulations. The central principle according to Kay is the change of culture.

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Kay, J A. Other People’s Money: The Real Business of Finance. , 2015. Print.

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Should Children Be Punished or Not

Sarah Smenyak in her article, The Difference between Discipline and Child Abuse, describes discipline as an element of parenting that is very fundamental to the dynamics of the relationship between a parent and the child. Its goal is to correct a child’s choices and actions. On the other hand, Punishment is that act of using a negative stimulus to eradicate a negative behaviour (Sarah Smenyak, no.p).  Punishment can be classified into, corporal punishment, verbal reprimand and disapprovals. Verbal Reprimands are the disapproving verbal statements that parents use to alter a child’s bad behaviours. On the other hand, corporal punishment is the process of instilling physical pain to adolescent or a child, in responding to her undesired behaviours.  Example of corporal punishment may include, spanking a child or slapping his hand for trying to touch something hot. Some people punish their children purposefully; one of the most common purposes is to avoid the child redoing a mistake. Subsequently, some people do not punish their children because they do not want to scare them. Hence, the children may not listen to them. Therefore, should children be punished or not?

A caretaker or parent with intent of providing a teaching lesson to the child regarding his inappropriate action describes discipline as consequence to that undesired action. For instance if a four-year-old child continues to throw food on the floor against a parent’s warning, taking the food away from the child transforms into a disciplinary action. The taking of the food away from him is to make him learn that his behaviour from throwing food is unacceptable behaviour and it has a consequence too.  Discipline and Punishment are not the same. From the above example, a situation for punishment would be if the adult, caretaker or parent yelled and spanked the child for throwing food. In such a situation, the parent or adult is out of control of his anger and emotions.  Hence, the only thing his action does is teaching the child should always expect pain whenever he throws food on the floor.

A great percentage of people in the society are misinformed when it comes to child development. Most adults define the rational approach of disciplining children as ‘spoiling.’ The culture has become so critical because parents have allowed inappropriate and unrealistic expectations from their children to influence their choice of disciplining their children thus, resorting to punishing them. It, therefore, undermines the principles of proper discipline. Apparently, cultural context of child abuse is a severe physical harm subjected to a child. Due to such culture, the society has now found it difficult to establish a limit between discipline and punishment. It has also been assumed that any punishment that is subjected to a child does not necessarily transform to child abuse. However, the punishment is scaled based on the age of the child and its severity. Parents do not understand that, punishment only provides a child with external motivation instead of the inner motivation required for self-discipline. It means that, when a child is punished, he may comply. However, he may comply just to avoid the punishment. Also, the child may be doing the dodging act, just to avoid being caught. Unfortunately, a parent may think that the child has become obedient (Discipline and Development, Pg3).

Most of the time, punishment or threat of punishment does lead to parents nagging and grudging besides resentful compliance on the children’s part. A parent then realises that his consequences are not useful. They then believe that the punishment they administered to the child was not enough or severe to stop the child’s misbehaviour. Such belief has often caused unnecessary conflict thus damaging the relationship between a parent and a child. Also, self-control and confidence during childhood cannot be learnt from punishment. Therefore, punishment plays a petite part in teaching discipline and self-control to a child, neither does it provide him with an alternative behaviour. For instance, physical punishment can be ineffective when compared to time-out.  It can stop or decrease the undesired behaviour. However, its efficiency always decreases with its subsequent application. It is because, the only way to sustain it initial impact is by systematically increasing the punishment’s intensity, which eventually escalates into an abuse.  However, for punishment to be quite effective, then it must be applied in infrequent and selective circumstances (American Academy of Paediatrics, Pg.523).

According to America Human Association, discipline is how a child learns right from wrong or acceptable from unacceptable. It is part of a child’s natural development. In their childhood, children tend to test parental expectation and authority. Therefore, discipline process must be designed in ways that help children to develop healthy engagements with their fellow children and enable them to control their behaviour. Committee for Children states the fundamental purpose for child discipline is to enhance the child’s moral, physical and intellectual development.  Eventually, when the child grows up, he will always stick to doing the right thing. He will not act right out of fear of the external reprisal but because of he had internalised some standards of behaviour, which had been instilled in him by his parents.

The objective of discipline is to help a child achieve self-confidence, self-control, care for others and self-direction. Besides, for discipline to be objective and effective, it must have three elements. Proper learning environment is the first element. That is, the learning environment must be characterised by a positive and healthy parent to child relationship. Existence strategy as the second element provides a systematic learning of the desired behaviour. Lastly is the elimination plan for undesired actions. Because of a structured discipline that has the three elements, a child or an adolescent is able to integrate his parent’s behaviour and expectations into his behaviour. He eventually develops an understanding of the laid rules. Hence, the consequences associated with those rules, guide his ways. A parent must therefore employ various strategies of discipline as his child develops more freedom or independence (American Academy of Paediatrics, Pg.723).

The strategies that parents can apply for their children to learn and adopt positive behaviours include; providing the children with positive attention. It creates an opportunity for communicating and interacting positively with their children.  During the special time, a parent should listen carefully to his child and help him learn how to express his feeling with words. The child should be provided with the opportunity to make his choices when options for choices are available. Choices allow the children or adolescents to evaluate possible consequences for the misbehaviour. On the other hand, a parent must reinforce any desirable behaviour that a child adopts by praising the child. However, the adult must have realistic expectations on how the child must behave through being fair and turning a disciplinary process into a learning opportunity for his child. Therefore, boundaries should be set to avoid injuring or harming a child. The discussed strategies will enable the child to internalize a desired behaviour thus making it a foundation for adopting more desired behaviours (Discipline and Development, Pg3).

Therefore, punishment is not appropriate because it entails aggressive behaviour that a parent does not want a child to possess. It only breeds resentment and increases violence thus leading to child abuse. Social workers dictate that good parenting should involve non-violent and appropriate methods of disciplining a child. Parents should be good role models. Therefore, they should teach children the negative consequences of their misbehaviour by using incentives, establishing firm and rational limits and using time-outs.

Cited From

American Humane Association: Child Protection Position Statements, 2009, Pg 16.Committee for Children (2004).

American Academy of Paediatrics: Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health; Guidance for Effective Discipline, 2015

American Humane Association: Child Protection Position Statements, 2009, Pg 16.Committee for Children (2004).

Discipline and Development: Prevent Child Abuse America; 2011Sarah Smenyak. The Difference between Discipline and Child Abuse. 2015 Press

 

 

BIPOLAR DEPRESSION

Major depression or bipolar depression often affects one’s ability to function, feel or think. It is a situation where one always possesses pervasive sadness, hopelessness and disappointments. The depressed person does not have pleasure in life, has a feeling to stay lonely and do not want to engage in life activities.  Such feeling goes much deeper into affecting one’s whole existence. The changing moods in the victims are an evidence of bipolar. However, the natures in which moods changes vary in individuals. Moods changes in bipolar include mania, depression, hypomania and mixed symptoms of both depression and mania. It means that in the course of bipolar depression, an individual goes through periods of high moods, depression and sometimes normality in moods. Mania starts with having a sense of heightened energy, social ease and even creativity. The feeling then elevates to euphoria. In the entire thread of posts, the two themes are suicide, as a desire to die but not kill one’s self and lose of job. Both situations are caused by bipolar depression (Clinical Depression Forum).

In the case of pencilsNcigarrettes, depression led to his sacking. He was often late for work and because he went to work less motivated, he was less productive. Terrible sensations were the norm in his life every morning he woke up. The bad feeling that something bad was going to happen in the course of the day drained him more. One of the major characteristics of bipolar depression is one having disinterest in his work or any other activity. It explains why pencilsNcigarrettes felt tired and often woke up late.  His testimony also indicates how those suffering from depression by alienating themselves from others, subject themselves to being misunderstood. No one can tell why they are unproductive, always late or less motivated. Therefore, a boss who has no knowledge about bipolar depression will most likely send off his depressed employee. The fluctuating moods, that is, the mania stages, are the reason why pencilsNcigarrettes felt motivated to go to work during the last week. However, the continuous disinterest in doing or going to work is always enough to warrant an employee suffering from bipolar depression to be sacked (Clinical Depression Forum).

Due to bipolar depression, one neither feels the worth of being alive; neither can one tell his real purpose of living. Bipolar depression is a major cause for suicide. Such attribute defines Batman’s emotional state. He is no longer interested in his economics course; neither does he have any optional course that interests him. Besides, he does not have friends but acquaintances. The continuous alienation from friends and his hobbies makes him to think of death as the only solution to his predicament. In Batman’s case, there is a danger of the depression worsening if there is no proper medical or psychiatric treatment. The lack of the source to his depression may also complicate his situation. Bipolar disorders vary depending on the frequency and type of episodes experienced by individuals. Therefore, its treatment must be customised according to the patient’s severity and patterns. The most popular medication is the mood stabilisers. However, the higher the degree, the more the lack of interest to life, therefore at this stage, one is most likely to commit suicide (Clinical Depression Forum).

However, it is important that a patient does not adjust a medicine dose without consulting a doctor. Batman should then continue using the medications or consult more with his psychiatric to experience a reprieve from his current state. From the forum, though both the victims are not planning to commit actual suicide, they desire to die. Therefore, loss of jobs and suicide are the themes prominent from this forum. It is also imperative to conclude that bipolar depression leads to lose of jobs and suicide.

References

“Clinical Depression Forum.” RSS.Web. 05 Apr.2016.

http://www.psychforums.com/depression/

 

Distracted driving

Distracted driving is the process involving diversion of attention during driving that is instigated by the driver temporarily focussing on an object, task, person or event that is not related to the action of driving. The obstruction reduces the driver’s awareness, his decision-making, thus leading to road accidents.  Mobile phone usage prompted the focus on distracted driving during driving. Therefore, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) formulated a distracted driving policy regarding cell phones in place. The policy states that drivers must refrain from using cell phones while driving. The policy was drafted to curb the mobile phone usage during driving. Mobile phones had been identified as the 25% contributors to all reported road accidents in the USA. The policy has been effective. Other than increasing awareness about the risks of cell phone usage while driving, the rates of traffic accidents have significantly gone down. Therefore, this paper evaluates the effectiveness of the distracted driving policy of mobile phones with other distracted driving policies.

Cell phone policy

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued a policy stating that drivers should desist from engaging in activities that distract them from operating a motor vehicle. The policy prohibits both novice and experienced driver from using any form of the electronic communication device when driving. It directs motor vehicle manufacturers to install limited inbuilt communication-related devices in the car. Finally, the driver must avoid texting or using video gadgets when driving. The intention of the policy is to restrict phone usage while driving to minimize driver distraction hence improving highway safety. For NHTSA to arrive at its goals, it has gone ahead to outline its implementation plan. They include improving the quality of its data analysis methods as a means of understanding the degree of cell phones as a distraction to driving. It is also determining how to design, develop and evaluate crash avoidance technologies. Lastly is the behavioural approach of educating drivers regarding the risks of using cell phones while driving. NHTSA made the policy based on over 100 published peer-reviewed studies on cell phone use as distracted driving.   Also, is by consulting with the corporate, legislative making bodies and through recommendations from U.S private citizens. Studies show that drivers, both novice and experienced tend to have lower proficiency in driving when using cell phones (Wilson & Stimpson, 2010)

85% of American adults own mobile phones (Duggan & Rainie, 2012). The gadgets are primary communication source for more than half of the US households. In recent years, activities that are directly functioned by mobile phones have increased.  Other than various applications, the traditional uses of cell phones have increased significantly. Currently, mobile users engaging in the texting have increased from 60% to over 90% from the year 2012-2015. Moreover, the number of internet users has also reached more than 85% people after the invention of the smartphone. Now, most Americans own mobile phones and most of them are frequent uses of the gadgets. The increasing interaction of people through cell phones has since become a leading cause for distractions in every individual’s activity. Despite the disruptive nature of mobile phones, many people are oblivious of some of its dangers.  In his case, the primary cause for concern is the cell phone as a contributory factor to the American road accident cases (Barker, Monk, Goodman, Mineta &NHTSA, 2009).

According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, about 10% of fatal car crashes and 20% of injuries crashes of 2015 were because of the distracted form of driving (NHTSA, 2015). The usage of cell phones while driving is measured in many ways. The methods include self-report, naturalistic studies and observational studies. According to the National Survey of Distracted Attitudes and Behaviours more than 48% of drivers reported answering their phones while driving. Ten % of the drivers reported to texting. On the other hand, 2012 observational study of the National Occupant Protection Use Survey (W.H.O & NHTSA, 2011).  states that visible phone manipulation had risen by 1.3% since 2011(Pickrell & Ye, 2014). Since then, that is, after the 2011 NOPUS study, cell phones are increasingly being associated with the distracted driving accidents. According to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Cell Phones contribute to about 65 of all crashes. The statistics translate to 636,000 crashes, 2,600 deaths, 12,000 serious injuries and 330,000 minor injuries each year. The studies also indicate that drivers who use mobile phones are four times most likely to cause a crash (Insurance Institute for Highway Safety). According to Harvard Centre for Risk Analysis, an annual cost of road accidents caused by cell phone distracted driving is approximate $ 43 billion (United States  & World Health Organization, 2011).

The extreme extent of a cell phone, as an accident contributor has since been an issue of concern. It is a problem affecting various stakeholders such as motorists, organizations responsible for transport safety, telecommunication industry, vehicle manufacturers and the government.  A solution to the problem was instigated by educational campaigns from the stakeholders about the prudent use of cell phones while driving.  Therefore, banning cell phone usage during driving as a distracted driving policy is in the context of road safety. In concluding their study of examining distracted driving trends in the U.S. from 1999 to 2008, Wilson and Stimpson state that distracted driving had become a U.S. public safety hazard.  They, therefore, recommended that tougher laws should be enacted to contain the situation. Other than because of the escalating road accident, the timing of the policy comes after many European countries  formulated similar policy (Wilson & Stimpson, 2010)

Effectiveness of the policy

The policy since its launch in 2009 has been quite effective. Because of the policy, many driver awareness campaigns have been carried out.  NHTSA has led the campaigns initiatives.  Due to the policy, manufacturers are currently producing new car models that have inbuilt phone system and voice activation system that responds to calls instead of a driver reviewing a call literarily.

Employer and Manufacturer Liability

Currently, more legislatures are joining the debate of cell phones as distracted driving. By December 2015, many states had the cell phone policy in place while more than fourteen states have banned using cell phones while driving. A 2009 survey by National Safety Council nearly 50% of U.S. companies had mobile policies.  The number of enterprises with the policy had risen drastically by over 3% since 2009 (Bello 2010).  However, they have placed much emphasis on hand free communication equipment.  It is believed that the trend has been a reaction to the tough state laws that ban mobile usage while driving and the subsequent more stringent penalties like 15 years conviction. The survey also indicates that employers principal concerns regarding the policy were reduced productivity, employee resistance thus challenges of implementing the policy. The survey revealed an increased productivity in 10% of the entire companies that apply the policy, 61% of the companies witnessed no change while 2% reported a decrease in the productivity (W.H.O, 2012).

The actual effectiveness of the policy on distracted driving related accidents has been quite difficult to ascertain. During 2011, the data collected by NHTSA shows that over the period of 2006-2011, there was a minimum percentage reduction of non-fatal accidents caused by distracted driving. Over that period, only 16%-17% of the total non-fatal accidents were considered to have been contributed by distracted driving. Subsequently, there was a slight decrease in distraction-affected injury accidents. The small change was 19% to 17% from 2006 to 2011 respectively. Also, states that banned only text messaging while driving experienced higher cases of fatal crashes. In this case, the data indicates that texting may not have declined following the ban. Interestingly, states with no cell phone restrictions of any kind had lower fatal accidents caused by distraction than states that had cell phone restrictions.  Therefore, it is not clear whether the laws limiting cell phone use while driving has been effective in reducing distracted driving and distracted-related crashes.

Accuracy of the collected Data

In any case, the handheld policy may not be the reason for affecting automobile accident rates. Though there is a slight reduction in road accidents, these observations quietly makes it difficult to determine whether the decrease in accident rates are as a result of the policy that bans using the cell phone during driving or due to other factors. Some of the factors that could be attributed to the reduction in distracted driving may be safety education, new automobile safety features, road construction or changes in alcohol control policies. Therefore, such confounding factors must be included in analysing the effectiveness of this policy. It also be deduced that the efficiency of the policy has been so minimum because of weak enforcement. For instance, during the first few months when the policy was made public, the user rate of cell phones while driving reduced from 2.4% to 1.1% in New York City.  However, a year later, the number of people using cell phones while driving rose again to 2.1%.  It could, therefore, be assumed that since the initial reduction of cell phone usage while driving was not sustained, the reduction of automobile accidents in New York may be due to other contributing factors (Cheng, 2015).

Though the policy could be effective, NHTSA admits that cell phone distraction-related road crashes are significantly under-reported. It is believed that more than half of cell phone related crashes are not reported during the review of fatal and non-fatal crashes. One of the problems of the policy is that it does not have data that accurately defines the role of cell phones in distraction-related crashes. The limitations that affect accurate recording of mobile phone use as a cause for crash include:

  1. Reluctance of drivers to admit the behaviour
  2. Lack of witness

III.    Police inability to record cell phone distraction activity

  1. Difficulty in determining the cause of accident, the time of the crash with cell phone records

Alternative programs

Despite the policy, NHTSA has laid out alternative programmes. The programmes include research, education, legislation and regulations in conjunction with the private sector. Concerning research, NHTSA, has directed automobile manufacturers to reduce the amount of electronic devices in auto vehicles. However, the effect of this alternative policy does not seem to be effective. Despite the auto manufacturers equipping motor vehicles with technologies that synchronise cell phones, the effect has been minimal because cell phone distracted is linked to driver behaviour. Therefore, the policy makers must strive to change the drivers’ behaviours. Up to date, policy makers do not have a complete understanding of the cognitive awareness distraction by cell phone. Also is how to enhance cognitive awareness of a driver. However, by combining the policy with education, legislation and visibility enforcement, the outcome is often positive and progressive. It is imperative to note that through enforcement and education, driver’s behaviours change because, other than being aware of the danger of using a cell phone while driving,  effective enforcements of the policy prevents their action.  A high visible public education programme not only explains the risks of such behaviour but also warns the drivers of dire consequences.

A visible enforcement programme involves combining public education campaigns with more police presence as a means of reducing distracted driving.  Since 2010, NHTSA has been conducting and evaluating the effectiveness of this programme. In one of it surveys carried out in Syracuse and Hartford, it showed that cell phone use by drivers fell by 57% from 72% in New York, 32% in Syracuse. The mobile enforcement campaign by the NHTSA has expanded nationwide and it is effective. While the U.S. legislatures have not fully implemented phone ban policy as directed by NHTSA, thousands of employers have been playing the role of changing the behaviour of using a cell phone while driving among their employees. The rational for companies adhering to the policy may be because they incur many costs when their employees are involved in a crash. According to NHTSA, an employer incurs a cost of $24,000 in the event their automobiles crash. The costs tend to increase to even $ 125,000 when an injury occurs in the accident. Moreover, employers are continuously faced with liability, productivity, insurance and absenteeism costs. The quick implementation of the employer’s cell phone distracted driving policy by employers, is because they want to avoid the $500,000 to $20 million for car crashes caused by their employees who use cell phones while driving, (Dellinge & Sleet, 2010).

Conclusion

With the danger posed by the rising behaviour of using cell phones while driving, NHTSA must improve the effectiveness of its policy to curb distracted-related accidents. First, it must formulate an accurate method of collecting and presenting data related to cell phone caused accidents.  Through accurate data, the organisation can evaluate the progress and effectiveness of its policy based on an actual statistics. NHTSA must also focus on understanding the behaviours of drivers when coming up with policies that are more stringent. Eventually, other than educating the drivers and the public on the risks of using the cell phones, NHTSA must continue enforcing through outstanding programmes. It is, therefore, imperative to conclude that mobile comprise of distracted driving. It is responsible for many deaths caused by both novice and experienced drivers. It is the reason NHTSA drafted the policy of banning cell phone usage while driving. Though the policy has been active for many years, its effectiveness has not been comprehensive because of the money factors that determine its success.

 

 

Reference

Wilson, F. A., & Stimpson, J. P. (2010). Trends in fatalities from distracted driving in the United States, 1999 to 2008. American journal of public health, 100(11), 2213-2219

Top of Form

Barker, J. A., Monk, C. A., Goodman, M. J., Mineta, N. Y., & United States. (2009).Status summary: Using wireless communication devices while driving ; The relationship between on-road wireless phone use and crashes : draft 07/07/03. New York, N.Y.: New York Times Company.

Top of Form

United States., & World Health Organization. (2011). Mobile phone use: A growing problem of driver distraction.

Geneva: World Health Organization. Top of Form

Measuring corporate attitudes to employee distracted driving. (January 01, 2012).Automotive Fleet, 51, 11.)

Top of Form

United States. (2011). National phone survey on distracted driving attitudes and behaviors. Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Bottom of Form

Top of Form

Cheng, C. (July 01, 2015). DO CELL PHONE BANS CHANGE DRIVER BEHAVIOR?.Economic Inquiry, 53, 3, 1420-1436.

Top of Form

Dellinger, A., & Sleet, D. (2010). Preventing Traffic Injuries: Strategies That Work. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 4, 1, 82-89.

The United Steelworkers

Thesis Statement:

The United Steelworkers and the various employers in copper, silver, and gold mining industries of the 21st century barely resemble the mostly-male industrial union of the 1940s. The increasing diversity of different membership of both genders has only acted as a strengthening factor that is the fundamental principle on which the union was established. It is for this reason that there are more female employees in the modern mining industry than it was during the early years of mining in Canada.

Introduction:

The workers employed in the mining and steel industry were two of the USW’s traditional jurisdictions that totaled to approximately 60,000 out of a total membership of about 200,000. Steelworker members and other employees in gold, silver, and copper mining during this era fought for their right to increase their wages through the movement. In many ways, the early history of the steelworkers and other employees in different mining industries brought about the labor movements whose roots are found in the heavily industrialized core of the 19th century Northern Ontario. Members of USWA and other employees in the mining industry have continued to organize in small ways although the unions themselves were mostly centered on craft lines.

The history of the United Steelworkers movements

  • The employee’s history in silver, gold and copper mining industries
  • Role played by the employees in different fields
  • Success of the United Steelworkers movement in North Ontario 1953

Participants:

  • The number of workers in USW movement
  • Role performed by each employee

The consequences:

  • Abuse, rape and starvation of those who participated in the in the North Ontario strikes of 1953.
  • Secured higher wages and paid vacations

Conclusion:

Different labor unions formed to protect the steelworkers and other employees in copper, silver and gold mining industries experienced several challenges. One of the major challenges included workers who went on strike several times to try and win the right to the collective bargain with both steel and mining companies. On the other hand, the successes of the labour unions like USWA are not limited to improving the salary packages for their employees and their working conditions. Labour market flexibility plays a vital role in the happiness of the employees as the employers respect their wishes. The unions have laid platforms facilitate women employment in the mining industries. Even though in the 21 century mining industries are still male dominated, as the industrial union of the 1940s, presently, there are more women in the mining industry than it was in that period.

References

Fonow, M. M. (2003). Union women: Forging feminism in the United Steelworkers of America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Guard, J., Orgales, J. G., & Steedman, M. (2006). Organizing Call Centres: The Steelworkers’ Experience (pp. 277-292). Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press

Peters, J. (2010). Down in the vale: Corporate globalization, unions on the defensive, and the USW Local 6500 strike in Sudbury, 2009-2010. Labour/Le Travail66(1), 73-105.

Sandloss, J., & Keeling, A. (2012). Claiming the New North: Development and Colonialism at the Pine Point Mine, Northwest Territories, Canada.Environment and History18(1), 5-34.

Schatz, L., & Johnson, L. C. (2007). Smart City North: economic and labour force impacts of call centres in Sudbury, Ontario. Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation1(2), 116-130.

Yates, C. A. (2002). Expanding labour’s horizons: Union organizing and strategic change in Canada. Just Labour1.

SOCIAL, CULTURAL and ECONOMIC CONTEXT OF HEALTH

Introduction

Culture determines the quality patient-centred care. It directly influences how a health official delivers health care and how the patient receives the service. Lack of social and cultural competence results to poor patient outcomes, increased health disparities and reduce patient compliance regardless of quality of the available health systems and services.

Understanding production of health and the influence of social determinants on health

Social and cultural factors always interact with biology to impact on a patient’s health. Social determinants are patient’s:

  • Definition of health
  • Response to disease
  • Disability
  • Experience of pain and the healing process
  • Access to health care

The strength of socio-cultural and economic model in healthcare

The model unravels the relationship between a patients, his biology, environment and community. Also, is how the patient understands his health situation.

Understanding Health inequalities

Inequalities of social conditions lead to unequal health outcomes in social groups.

 

  • Social determinants of health:
  • Poverty and inequality
  • The built environment
  • Social discrimination and exclusion
  • Public policies
  • Community participation
  • Health behaviours
  • Work and employment

Health economics

  • health care interventions Economic concept
  • The role of economic principles in setting priorities and financing access to health care
  • Evaluating the effectiveness of the economic concepts and their costs
  • Appreciating the different approaches to financing health services

Governance in health care

  • Role of governance in health care
  • Leadership structure
  • Culture and health system performance
  • Effectiveness of governance in health care

Significance of scarcity in health care system in relation to patient choice

  • Rationality of the patient regarding his choice

 

References

Sobo E.J and Loustaunau (2010) The Cultural Context of Health, Illness and Medicine. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger. (Also available as an eBook- Visit  www.abc.com )

Taylor, S. & Field, D. (2007) Sociology of Health and Health Care. Oxford Blackwell Publishing

Taylor, G. & Hawley, H. (2010) Key Debates in Health Care. Maidenhead: Open University.Press

Tudor Hart, J. (2010) The Political Economy of Health Care. Bristol: The Policy Press.

Wonderling, D., Gruen, R. & Black, N. (2005) Introduction to Health Economics. Maidenhead: Open University Press

United Steelworkers and Various Employers in Gold, Silver and Copper Mining, Northern Ontario1953 Name

 

Introduction

The workers employed in the mining and steel industry were two of the USW’s traditional jurisdictions that totalled to approximately 60,000 out of a total membership of about 200,000. Steelworker members and other employees in gold, silver, and copper mining during this era fought for their right to increase their wages through the movement. In many ways, the early history of the steelworkers and other employees in different mining industries brought about the labour movements whose roots are found in the heavily industrialised core of the 19th century Northern Ontario. Steelworkers and other employees have continued to organise in small ways although the unions themselves were mostly centred on craft lines.

Thesis

Industries of the 21st century barely resemble the mostly-male industrial union of the 1940s. The increasing diversity of different membership has only acted as a strengthening factor that is the fundamental principle on which the union was established (Yates, 2002).

Traditionally, the mining industry had been preserved and dominated by the males.  In the recent years, the trend is changing and more women are attracted to the mining industry. According to 2010 report on Canada’s employ gender distribution in its mining industry, only 14% of the women were represented in its mining workforce. However, many of these jobs were administrative. Regardless of the few numbers of the female employees, it is imperative to acknowledge that employees’ working conditions and remuneration structures of Canada’s mining industry have come a long way. The milestones obtained was as a result of employees in the various fields of Canada’s mining sector teaming up to voice the course for better working conditions, representations and monetary rewards.

The collective bargain was unheard of before the First World War 1.  Even in the north-west parts of the Canadian territory, the situation was the same. Before 1920, the main economic activity in the northern Canada was fur trade that relied upon a much dispersed and disorganised Aboriginal people workforce. Despite the immigration of more non –Aboriginal people the northern Ontario region after the discovery of oil, and the subsequent establishment of the petroleum industry in the region during the 1920s, the labour force was still much disorganised. Morrison Williams and Coates Kenneth in their studies attribute the lack of labour disorganisation to lack of trade unions. Workers in the area were not well represented in advocating for travel subsidies, more wages in relation to overtime, good housing and easy mobility. Interestingly at that time when workers felt that they were unjustly treated, they would opt to quit working than going on strike (Peters, 2010).

The history of labour unions began with first what was referred to as organised labour in the North West Canadian territories.  It started in the gold mining industry that had developed in the Yellowknife Bay area in 1935. In this region, three major gold mines had established themselves as the main operators in the region. They included Negus, Con and Gient. The origin of labour unionism would start gaining popularity after attempts to reorganise the Yellowknife miners. However, this narrative does not mean that there were no industrial strikes during this period. It is important to note that the industrial strikes that took place in Canada were not from mining workers from the mining industry.

Early labour unions advocated for men employees to be paid more wages than the female employees. The reason was that mining job was too physical for the females. Also, men were considered to be the sole family providers. Such reasons were considered as part of the many factors that discouraged women from joining the mining industry. However, in recent years, there are more women employees in the mining industry. The trend has been attributed to the labour unions pressuring the mining industry to employ more women. The labour union and other civil organizations have also been on the forefront in putting pressure on the mining industries to adopt the concept of ‘equal pay for equal work.’ The concept dictates that value of the work done by women employees should be rated and compared to that value men inject into the same assignments related to the mining industries. Therefore, they are to be paid not for an equal job was done but for equal value for the service rendered (Yates, 2002).Interestingly, other than before, Canada now forces its workers to pay union fees regardless of members wishing to join the unions or not. This has ensured that there are more women workers in the labour unions than before thus raising their concerns regarding more inclusion into the mining sector.

The employee’s history in silver, gold and copper mining industries

Gold was discovered in Ontario Canada in 1883. Its mining in large-scale began at around 1905-1911. Silver was also discovered over the same period while Copper was discovered before the early 1950s. The gold deposits were found near Bancroft. Subsequently, more of the mineral source were discovered in Canada and the Ontario regions.  The minerals included graphite, talc, coal, gypsum among many others. Currently, the mining industry directly employs over 68,000 employees across Ontario region. The jobs are currently generating over $5 billion in wages and salaries.

The early miners in Canada faced similar grievances regardless of the mining fields they were employed to work.  The key issues of concern to the employees were low wages and poor working conditions. For instance, the gold miners worked in risky caves that were sometimes soaked in water. They were often at high risk contracting airborne diseases due to dust because they had no protection gadgets. Despite the low oxygen levels in the mining caves, they were subjected to long working hours but very poor working wages. At the copper and silver mining industries, the conditions were the same. They were always getting sick from lung cancer and silicosis. The miners were equally subjected to poor working conditions and low wages. At the smelting sectors, they were vulnerable to the dangerous machines thus frequent work-related accidents (Schatz & Johnson, 2007).

It is important to note that during the early mining periods in Canada, the government forbid mining industries from employing female employees. The rule was issued based on various factors like masculinity. That is, the mining industry was considered the male job. Moreover, due to the high profiles at the mining sites, it was inevitably important to protect the women from such accidents. On the other hand, the mining employers considered women as expensive since they worked less than men did (Lahiri-Dutt, 2011).

The mining employers gave little attention to the plight of workers as they took advantage of their disorganisations. With the rise of labour unions like Mine Mills, workers were able to regroup and air their grievances in one voice. Since the principle of collective bargain never existed during that period, mining employees dictated working terms. They could not accept a quest to reduce working hours to a daily 8 hours and raise the daily minimum age to $4 or even the demand for employees’ labour unions. The situation led to subsequent industrial strikes. For instance, is the March 10, 1957, industrial strike by 1,000 Gaspe’ Copper Mines employees. Also are the 1920 Cape Breton and 1941 Lake Kirkland strikes by gold miners and the silver mining strikes of the 1950s. The United Steelworkers led the strikes.

When comparing the traditional mining industry to the current mining industry, several milestones have been covered regarding the welfare of the mining employees. Today, employees have a set minimum wage cutting across both genders. There are improved working conditions, which have also been conditioned by improved technology. Most importantly is that employees are members of legal labour unions which take care of their welfares.  The success is attributed to the endless course by the miners in the different mining fields in fighting for their rights. The employees played their roles by ensuring that they became members of labour unions before advocating for recognition of their labour unions. They all forced their employers into accepting unionisation and collective bargain.  It is through labour unions that the voices of women employees were heard. They could mobilise fellow employees to force mining companies into hiring more female employees (Yates, 2002).

Success of the United Steelworkers movement in North Ontario 1953

In 1953, the North Ontario mineworkers went on strikes. The United Steelworkers movement had mobilised mineworkers from other mines to join the strikes. They were advocating for better pay, improved working conditions, check out policy and the right to work. The USWA president Charles Millard led the strike. According to the union leaders, Noranda Mines base wage was $ 1.05 for 48 hours weekly work compared to International Nickel Corporation in Sudbury wage base of $1.05/hour for 46 hours weekly work. Such wage disparity was the driving forces for the steelworkers to advocate for reasonable wage package that was equal with the rest of the industry wage base. The strikes which was mired in violence caused by the clashes between the protesting mining workers and the strike breakers later bore some significant achievements

At the end of the strikes, the government was able to agree with the union leaders on 5 cents/hr increase of the workers’ wages accompanied with an 18-month employment contract. The employment contract was six months longer than the six months contract proposal that was rejected by the steel mine employers. Secondly, the union was able to negotiate for security and expand its democratic space through the Labour Relation Act. The strike led to a recommendation to increase employ protection right through a right-to –work laws. Violations of their rights were then subjected to judicial proceedings. After the strike, USWA, acquired an imbalance power over the employers because they could mobilise employees to strike. It, therefore, resulted to the union being handed legal responsibilities in protecting the rights of employees in collaboration with the steel employers through the principles of collective bargain. Therefore, a judicial tribunal was established to administer labour legislations.

The number of workers in USW movement

The movement had support from over 4600 workers who supported its striking. At that period, the union did not also have union funds to support the strikes. During this period, the workers had developed a sense of losing their jobs and wages than to risk their lives in the mines. Despite many workers supporting its strike, Stelco infiltrated the number in the show of no defeat (United Steelworkers of America, 1996).

Role performed by each employee

During the strike, employees performed various roles to keep the pressure on the mining industries, central government and the federal government.  The most important role an employee played was solidarity to the course. In exercising solidarity, the employee had to endure hardship and starvation since the steel companies denied them their dues for the entire long periods of strikes. In addition to this, an employee participated in the strike through direct confrontations or political engagements with the companies’ authorities. Most significantly are the employee participation through dispelling the activities of the mining companies. They included preventing raw material from entering the factories, preventing the distribution of the factories’ finished milled sheets by blocking the rail line. Most importantly, they prevented production (Peters, 2010).

The consequences:

During the strikes, workers encountered obstacles that came with it.  Despite many of them being enticed with improved wages to keep off the strikes, many opted to support it. To those who did not support the strikes for fear of being sacked, the situation did pitch them against their fellow workers. Many were physically assaulted while the female workers were raped. Their predicament did not only come from their fellow employees but also from the thousands of security forces who were dispatched by the government to dispel the strikes. Subsequently, employees were denied their salaries during the industrial strikes. The lack of money worsened the their situation, as many of them could not afford to feed themselves and their families.. The strategy of denying the workers their dues was used by the mining industries as a way of restraining the workers from striking. Those who supported the employers were referred to as “scabs” while those who strike were humiliated through propaganda machine. The events depict a hostile environment, which could not have attracted many female employees into the mining industries (Guard, Orgales & Steedman, 2006).

After a struggle, the effort of United Steelworkers movement finally pulled through.  The movement was able to make some considerable number of achievements. For instance, after the 1953 strikes, the wages of mine workers were increased and their working conditions improved.  They were also allowed payable leaves. Consequently, both the government and employers, therefore, recognised the labour unions. The body became a facilitator of collective bargaining partner for its members. The movement also became part of a political movement that influences the political elements of the country regarding labour issues (Schatz & Johnson, 2007).

Most significant is that collective bargain introduced the principle of “labour market flexibility.” It became the capitalism strategy for reordering employee policy depending on the market trends. It has resulted to demanding for flexible wages and mobility while the employers flexible use employees for labour productions. Such flexibility has been instrumental in the recruitment of more women to the mining industry that it was years before. Also, the movement’s pressures on the mining industry and the government regarding the health and safety of mining employees have bore fruits. Currently, mining and safety have become the first core values for the mining industry. Now, Canadian mining firms invest more on resources and time in developing and maintaining safety cultures in their mining operations (Guard, Orgales & Steedman, 2006).

Conclusion

Early mining employees did not have labour unions.  Because they were unorganised, mining industries used the situation to their advantage. Also, the government had once forbidden the employment of female employees to the mining industries. It created a precedent where men dominated the mining industry.  The mining workers also shared same employee issues. Therefore, different labour unions formed to protect the steelworkers and other employees in copper, silver, and gold mining industries through its first drive experienced several challenges. One of the major challenges included workers who went on strike several times to try and win the right to the collective bargain with both steel and mining companies. On the other hand, the successes of the labour unions like USWA are not limited to improving the salary packages for their employees and improving their working conditions. The unions have laid platforms on which many women can now be employed in the mining industries.

 

References:

Yates, C. A. (2002). Expanding labour’s horizons: Union organising and strategic change in Canada. Just

Schatz, L., & Johnson, L. C. (2007). Smart City North: economic and labour force impacts of call centres in Sudbury, Ontario. Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation, 1(2), 116-130.

Peters, J. (2010). Down in the vale: Corporate globalisation, unions on the defensive, and the USW Local 6500 strike in Sudbury, 2009-2010. Labour/Le Travail,

Top of Form

United Steelworkers of America. (1996). It started with a whisper: A history of the 1946 strike. Hamilton, Ont: Local 1005.

Top of Form

Lahiri-Dutt, K. (2011). Gendering the field: Towards sustainable livelihoods for mining communities. Acton, A.C.T: ANU E Press.

Bottom of Form

Guard, J., Orgales, J. G., & Steedman, M. (2006). Organising Call Centres: The Steelworkers’ Experience (pp. 277-292). Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press

“An Action Plan for Eliminating New Brunswick’s demographic deficit.”

Canada is currently on the brink of facing a serious demographic challenge. For the past few decades, there has been an increasing gap ratio between the elderly and the working population. Such decline in population has been attributed to low birth rate. At the current state, Canada’s annual growth rate is only at 1.22%. Brunswick, one of the Canada’s provinces is one of the states that are experiencing this huge demographic deficit. In Brunswick, there have been a declining number of youthful populations settling there. Statistics Canada fathom that New Brunswick population has declined by 940 people during the 2014 first few months of the year 2014. At the current moment, the province has had over 4,000-population decrease since 2013 with now the population being slightly above 750,000. Such trend has a significant impact on the province’s economy, its tax base and the entire social support system. It is also imperative to note that for if nothing is done to curb the trend, then there will be a further demographic deficit in the province and its negative impact will be much greater than now. Therefore, it is proper to suggest that it is New Brunswick requires a good action plan geared towards eliminating its demographic deficit (Busby, Colin, William  Robson and Pierre-Marcel, 2009 p 121).

Data originating from Statistics Canada indicates a reduction of over 60,000 young populations from New Brunswick during the past two decades. On the contrary, the senior population has been on a drastic increase in the past decades. The population of individuals aged over 65 years have been increasing at slightly 30,000 people per decade. It is even projected that by the year 2030, the province will have over 150,000 of an ageing population. One, therefore, has to note that the growth of a senior population is equal to a population that creates pressure on limited social welfares such as healthcare services, wellness initiatives, palliative cares and pension models among many others. It will then lead to a great challenge for the province to support such growing social needs. Other than a decline in tax revenue, it will lead to a shrinking saving basket, little investment incentives due to lack of labour force thus high wages.

Sustainable demography

Population growth of a certain defined geographical boundary confirms a success in its economy, social harmony and cultural vitality. A higher population growth is an indication that certain geography helps in the growth of the economy through the creation of more jobs, promotion of innovation, attraction of investment opportunities and empowerment of the overall society.  Such cases are direct contrasts occurrences in New Brunswick. Since the 2008 economic meltdown, there were changes in both domestic and global markets. However, years later, the poor recovery of New Brunswick was very poor. It has led to fiscal deficits and investor boycott of the province resulting in a restraint public and private sector spending in the province.  In the end, economic activities have often slowed down thus affecting the overall employment. Despite the increasing number of immigrants to the province, their number cannot suffice the growing demographic deficit left by local youths migrating to other provinces for better economic opportunities.

A sustainable demography implies a need for proactive policies directed towards sustaining an appropriate population that the province can allow through providing the optimum social and economic contribution.  It, therefore, means that New Brunswick requires proper contemporary models that can trigger population growth and later its demographic sustainability. In this case, New Brunswick population growth is dependent on two components; that is, natural increase and purposeful recruitment and retention of an international immigrant.

 

Action plan

As I have stated before, New Brunswick Demography is in crisis. The first approach to this crisis is to enhance its domestic population, then supplementing it with the population of international immigrants to correct the deficit. The approach will require quantitative demographic tools like increasing the birth rate, luring those who had migrated back to the province and reversing the out-migration flow. In this case, policy makers in this province need to embrace both direct and indirect public policies. The best direct policy is direct financial incentives for those who have more children. Indirect public policies that should be applied are flexible working hours, parental leaves and more day care centres. Such policies will create an environment that can allow the young couple to have families (Province of New Brunswick, 2013 pg. no 97).

Effectiveness of natural increase

Direct financial incentives were successful in France. Its success was embedded on public-private partnership and institutional support.  Currently, France fertility rate is two children per a woman.  It makes France the only European country capable of maintaining its birth rate. France government achieved this by offering family friendly initiatives. They include three years fully paid parental leave with a guaranteed job security, free kindergarten, subsidized daycares, monthly childcare allowance depending on the number of children and subsidised cost of public utilities like trains if a mother has more than three children. Therefore, through direct financial incentives, fertility rate will increase thus reducing New Brunswick population deficit (Laroque, Guy and Bernad, 2013 p 45).

Immigration strategy

Immigration instantly adds to a population. When the composition of immigrants is of a young working age, it contributes significantly to New Brunswick labour force. Apparently, the province has a poor record of attracting and maintaining international immigrants. For instance, despite one in five Canadians is an immigrant, in New Brunswick, only one in thirty persons is an immigrant. Therefore, attracting international immigrants will require;

  1. Streamlining and fast tracking Brunswick’s provincial nominee program
  2. Harness welcoming communities
  3. Create more and better economic opportunities
  4. Create a flexible linguistic acceptance for both employment and social purposes
  5. Educate the public on the benefits of immigration to avoid local resistance
  6. Provide and enhance settlement and integration -support programs
  7. Facilitate recognition of their foreign credentials for employment purposes.

It is important to note that in the near future, international immigration will be a sole component for increasing New Brunswick’s population as a backup for natural increase strategy. Brunswick’s provincial government should then embark on developing proactive immigration strategies.  The strategies must be effectively targeting right sources of immigrants, providing a higher immigrant retention rate and enhancing social integration for newly admitted immigrants. However, New Brunswick immigration strategy must stretch towards enhancing economic benefits for both the immigrants and the province (Picot, Arthur and Sweetman, 2012 p 138).

Repatriation and Attraction

Brunswick loses a significant population through interprovincial exchanges.  There is a need to reenergize the efforts on attracting more Canadians into the province. Bringing in expatriates will be effective because have ready skills, education and language to succeed immediately in Brunswick’s labour market.  The provincial government should create a culture of continuous for its every citizen. It should be done by ensuring that there is easy accessibility to post-secondary education courses that respond to Brunswick’s needs and employment interests of prospective learners.  Therefore, both the national and provincial government must improve their capacity of linking expatriates and employers through innovative communication to successfully attract them into New Brunswick (New Brunswick Dept. of Economic Development, 2012 p 89).

Out-migration

75% of working youth are migrating from Brunswick. The action plan is to provide the youth with viable employment or career opportunities. Other than stimulating the province’s economic growth, the provincial government will have to collaborate with the private sector. Through the Workforce Expansion Program, Brunswick will provide fifty-two wage subsidies to an employer who hires a post-secondary graduate for a maximum week at a minimum wage of $14/hour.

Multicultural economics

Another step is by redefining New Brunswick’s multiracial, multicultural, multi-religious and multi-linguistic character to navigate through the global business world.  Through multicultural human resource, the province will be able to unlock new business opportunities for the foreign market. Other than benefiting directly, the multicultural character shall attract or appeal to the outside world thus attracting more people to work and settle in the province.

Conclusion

I, therefore, conclude that New Brunswick is headed towards a low demographic crisis. Its ageing population has outgrown the young population. Other than experiencing a low birth rate, many young people are migrating away from the province to other provinces.  Brunswick has a low economic prospect thus attracting few immigrants. Therefore, such demographic crisis must be tackled through purposeful and proactive strategies. The action plans must be able to increase its demography, reverse the population decline and sustain the achieved demographic growth. It is also important to note that New Brunswick’s economic success is embedded in a growing population. In this case, its demographic deficit must be eliminated.

Work From

Top of Form

Busby, Colin, William B. P. Robson, and Pierre-Marcel Desjardins. Stress Test: Demographic Pressures and Policy Options in Atlantic Canada. Toronto, ON: C.D. Howe Institute, 2009. Print.

Top of Form

Rebuilding New Brunswick: Economic Development Action Plan, 2012-2016. Fredericton, N.B: New Brunswick Dept. of Economic Development, 2012. Print.Bottom of Form

 

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Picot, Arthur and Garnett Sweetman. “Making it in Canada, Immigration outcome and politics”. Institute for Research on Public Policy.2012

Province of New Brunswick. New Brunswick population growth strategy 2013-2018 ISBN 978-1-4605-0230-3., 2013. Print

Laroque, Guy and Bernad Slanie. “Does Fertility Respond to Financial Incentives?” Social Science Research Network (2005): 1-41.

 

 

Edwardo Bonilla Silva

Part I.

Edwardo Bonilla Silva on his speech talks about the history of racism and white supremacy in the United States. He introduces us to the “new racism” which came about in the 70s, replacing the Jim Crow racism, which is an order that is beyond race. Silva argues that racism is deeply ingrained in our society, through our social institutions such as housing, the police, and job vacancies and so on. Claims that racism is not as overt anymore and new forms of discriminations are harder to detect. According to Silva police brutality isn’t a new trend it’s simply on the rise and controversially claims theirs no difference between minority and white officers are similar. In conclusion, racism continues to exist because the society was made by white people, and every intricate aspect is designed to marginalize minority people.

Dinesh D’Souza rejects the idea that race and genetics plays a part in minority’s failure, focusing on cultural differences. Says other minority groups are surpassing blacks are using historical circumstances as a crutch. Argues that critics of blacks is polarizing so people shy away from it and no solutions and changes are made. Due to historical changes blacks have always looked to the federal government for answers, while other races set up entrepreneurial associations and other systems. Claims government lacks resources and public confidence to provide them with these needs. Black flight, is when accomplished black leave the inner cities and move to the suburbs due to their preference, taking with them economic resources and leaving a gap behind.

Starts off by saying Asians should not sound Asians through the phone, so people can’t tell they are Asian at all. When talking about Americans, they would primarily refer to white Americans and no other races. Asian American is political identification that has meaning and power. Important to specify they are Asian American because they aren’t viewed as simply aren’t American. Children already possessed the racial slurs to use towards them. Were exposed to racism at a young age and didn’t really understand the concept behind it. Asians American are complacent, due to the model minority myth that characterises them in a positive way pitting them against other races.

Growing up black meant use of racial slurs in school books, and their reaction being gauged in class made the existence of racism overt for them. Were viewed as being acceptable black by their white classmates compared to other blacks they didn’t know. Were cautious of how they’d conduct themselves in public and were aware of the reactions of people surrounding them. Noticed the way police approached them and learned to behave a certain way towards them to avoid trouble. It doesn’t matter how non stereotypical they behave, they feel they are all treated the same. Feel they are dehumanised, and can’t make any mistakes cause of the consequences they may face.

White people are uncomfortable about talking about race are afraid to say anything offensive regardless of their stance on it. Now understand it’s a system of advantages based on race. Are aware they are white but don’t give it much thought like other races do. They didn’t understand hoe them being white shaped their lives. Some feel they are implicated in a racist system and are responsible for some parts of it.

Latinos in Us are identified as amonolith, despite coming from different cultures and countries. Gave up a lot of their childhood upbringing in an attempt to blend in with their American counterparts. Some no longer identity as their nationality, for example Guatemalans in US don’t consider themselves Guatemalans. Afro Latinas, are overlooked as being Hispanic and are immediately assumed as being black. Fall in the middle of the colour spectrum, they aren’t black or white, they’re brown. Feel that they aren’t enough to fit into certain factions of society.

Native Americans have evolved in their lifestyle, they live in modern houses and not in Tipis. There’s a misconception that they get a lot of government hand-out, when that is not the case. They work for their livelihood like everybody else from other races. Not all Native Americans ere head dresses, while others don’t wear them at all. Every feather has to be earned, it all has a meaning behind it. View the term redskin as racists because it refers to the blood dripping on their ancestors faces.

Part II

“The way to get rid of racism is to stop talking about it,” Morgan Freeman., his claim was that the continuous reference to Black and having a whole month dedicated to black history, created a division in US. He argued that Black history month is simply American History and treating it like an issue that different from other races history, is what promotes racism. He said not to talk about race like it’s an individual’s most defining characteristic will help combatting and eradicating racism in the US.  Freeman says that we should not identify individuals on the basis of their race, for instance Black man/woman or Asian child and so on.

Freeman’s argument can be seen as a vague way to combat racism, he claims that a simple action such as not defining ourselves by our race will stop racism entirely. This in itself is a difficult task to do. In a world that’s is populated by billions of humans who come from different race, the notion that all these individuals can collectively decide to stop defining themselves as a certain race is impossible. A large group of people can’t all decide on one issue without there being any conflict arising. There is also the fact that defining yourself by your race has been done for centuries, and dropping that ideology now would be unattainable.

If we were to take Edwardo Bonilla Silva idea that the society is intricately designed to work against people of color. Freemans concept of not acknowledging race would be futile, since there are mechanism put into place that are a form of discrimination which can’t be detected. Not talking about race would be redundant, since it would mean not addressing any issues would only allow the discrimination to exist.