Value of devotion to duty

Krishna is an incarnation of the great god Vishnu. Lord Krishna is being worshipped as a child by the Indian tradition. Krishna is somewhat ambiguous when he tells Arjuna the need of him performing his duties as a warrior. In addition, he tells him that those who fight such battles have an open door to heaven in that the higher powers want Arjuna to fight. On the other hand, if he does not fight he will be abandoning his duty as a warrior and also his fame.Krishna describes the god system as a caste system which was discriminatory and if you had certain origins in a particular caste it was difficult to leave it. He also says that a society which is good has everyone staying in their own places and doing their own duties.

Moreover, Krishna mentions how one can be a better person because it was like assimilating to Brahmins which was the highest class.Nevertheless, the value of devotion to duty is depicted by the characters of Ahirs who is courageous, determined and committed to their tradition values. For example, with their courage and sacrifice they have fought many wars. With commitment and selfless devotion they maintained their traditional values despite the terrible consequences. Also, Havildar strikes three Japanese in trying to save his gun but he was overwhelmed and he got serious wounds and when his gun was recovered it was ready for firing.

In conclusion, devotion to duty is depicted when the brave Ahir soldiers preferred death instead of surrendering. It is via their bravery that most of their bodies found most of them were still holding their weapons and they could not allow their enemies go without paying the price despite of them having wounds from shell splinters and bullets. With all this they attained true martyrdom at the battle of Rezang La.

Getting the Best of Searches

Everybody is in constant search for information. Be it from books, from physical sources or even from the internet. In all this searches, apart from the accuracy of the information, the speed of getting the information cannot be overemphasized.

However, getting the right information can be tedious since these sources arefloodedwith information. That is why it is of critical importance that one has the right techniques to apply or narrow a search (Zorana, 2008).

One of the most effective ways to narrow a search, especially online is employing the wisdom of redirection. After searching the initial idea, one can get possible ideas that are not only fresh and exciting but gives them a whole new idea of the infinite possibilities of the web (Greenwood, 1980). For example, a search on creating a document on Word Press can lead to links to other academically accepted platforms or ideas that one can actually use.

Another way of narrowing a search is adding another key concept to the search statement using the conjunctive ‘and’. This is adding information significantly narrows the subject.There are certain cases though when the results that come out are not sufficient to answer a search query. That’s when it becomes important to broaden a search.

Employing use of synonyms would help to a great extent. There are certain key words that getting information on may be difficult due to scarcity of their use in documents. Using their more common versions may just open up the floodgates of results. Limiting the key concepts that are used in a search is also important (Leslie Foster, 2006).

Our globe today has unprecedented opportunity to capitalize on the vast sources of information available, but one has to effectivelyutilize them to fully reap these rewards.

 

References

List-Handley. C. J. (2008) Information literacy and technology. 4th ed. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

GreenwoodLarry. (1980). How to Search for Information: A Beginner’s Guide to the Literature of Psychology. Suite A254 Fresno, CA;Willowood Press, 1980.

Leslie Foster Stebbins. (2006). Student Guide to Research in the Digital Age: How to Locate and Evaluate Information Sources. Santa Barbara, California: Libraries Unlimited.

Zorana Ercegovac. (2008). Information Literacy: Search Strategies, Tools & Resources for High School Students and College Freshmen. Goleta, California: ABC-CLIO.

A Case Study Of The Application of McKinsey Framework In Dubai.

A clear understanding of a firms competitive position is ensential for facilitating growth and achieving high level of permonce, this is especially important for companies that are expanding in environments that are dynamic, turbulent and ambiguous as in this case Yoku Moku in Dubai,It is competing within a new growing and challenging environment and hence the 7s framework can be used to understand where gaps may appear, where imbalances are and what areas to allighn and improve in order to increase perfomance.

 

It is important to look at a critical analysis and an overview if the 7s framework. The basic premise of the model is that there are seven internal aspects of an organization that need to be alighned  if it’s to be successful. The elements are categorised into hard- strategy, structure, systems and soft- shared values, skills, style and stdaff. Shared values are at the center of all these other elements, they unite all that is of the organization. Yoku Moku cookies was founded in the spirit of sincerity and handicraft and believe in good environment makes good products, these values should therefore be extended and upheld in Dubai.

The head offices in Japan should formulate neccesary structures like the hierarchial structures in Dubai, reporting mechanisms, how departments should function and  cordinate activities, and if decision making should be centralized or decentralized there Strategy may be implemented in 5 phases as pet (Peare and Robinson, 2007). Alignment of initiatives, alignment of budgets and performance, engagement of stuff and monitoring and adaptation.since change is constant, strategies must be reviewed regularly to assess actions and performance.Systems must exist in the organization in order to harmonize the strategies and structures hence enabling faster adoption of the new changes in the environment. Skills should also be major component same as stuff, putting in mind the gender, language, sex, age among others of the staff.

The 7s framework provides an excellentformat  for analyzing the requirements for a companies success and goals and it is definately something that i would recommend for Yoku Moku agents in Dubai.

 

References

 

Waterman R.H, Peters T.J and Philips, J.R , (1980) Structure is not organisation McKinskey Quaterly in house Journal McKinskey & Co. New York.

 

Khaleej Times September 27,2014 at 11:50 pm.

Cornel Hospitality Report vol.12 No.7 April 2012.

 

Control

Control is important in management because it helps in checking on any deviations from the plan. It is one of the key functions of management. If any deviation occurs along the way, the company makes sure that there are plans to minimize and correct them. When talking about control, those in management refer to the setting of standards, measuring of actual performance and the corrective action taken (Ouchi , 1977). When presented with the challenge of finding a new location for Starbucks, the development managers have to use the managerial function of control to ensure that everything is going according to plan (Ouchi, 1979).

In regards to finding of a new location for Starbucks, the development managers have to put in place some achievable parameters. These parameters determine the overall success of the team in locating the new premises.

First, there have been underway plans to bring in new machinery. The machinery is in relation to the expansions needs of the company. With the company looking to set up operations in a new location, while at the same time expanding, there is need for additional machinery to speed up processes. The company has achieved only three quarters of this plan so far. Out of the 5 caterpillars ordered, only three were delivered so far, which means that the company needs two more caterpillars to achieve its objectives. With these in mind, funds are being pooled together to purchase the machinery needed to ensure that operations go according to plan.

Time is a key factor when it comes to completion of important tasks (Harrison, 2002). As they say, time is money. This helps the company to save onavoidable costs. The total time set aside for the completion and construction of Starbucks new premises is one year. However, due to constraints in money and other unavoidable circumstances, the project has dragged along for 2 years. The company is late in construction of the new premises. This is due to factors such as bad weather that slowed down the process. Consequently, the company seeks to establish ways in which it will ensure a speedy construction process. More people are in employment in order to increase the work rate of the workers (Herzberg, 1968). More funding has been channeled towards ensuring the new facility is finished in due time.

The company is to build two access roads connecting the mainland area to the site for easy movement of materials and goods. One access route is complete so far with expectations of building the other route as planned. The delays are due to the unavailability of cement locally and these have stalled the construction of these two vital roads. The weather has also been extremely harsh, reaching a low of below 25 degrees. These freezing temperatures make it hard for workers. In order to deal with this problem, the company has decided to import cement. Besides, proper attire for freezing temperatures is availed to the workers.

Starbucks has had plans to acquire 6 new Mercedes Actross trucks. They will be responsible for ensuring efficiency by increasing the carrier capacity at any given moment. Only four of these trucks areavailablebecause the recession forced the prices of these trucks to hike midway during the transaction. The company is in negotiations with Mercedes to provide a reasonable discount since they were not aware.

References

 

Ouchi, W. G. (1977). The relationship between organizational structure and organizational control. Administrative science quarterly, 95-113.

 

Ouchi, W. G. (1979). A conceptual framework for the design of organizational control mechanisms. In Readings in Accounting for Management Control (pp. 63-82). Springer US.

 

Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., Gavin, J. H., & Florey, A. T. (2002). Time, teams, and task performance: Changing effects of surface-and deep-level diversity on group functioning. Academy of management journal, 45(5), 1029-1045.

 

Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees.

 

Wi-Fi

Wi-Fi is a technological advancement that is being widely used in society today. It is a kind of technology that enables electronic devices such as mobile phones and laptops to wirelessly connect to the internet. This is made possible by use of radio waves. It was invented in the 90’s by John Sullivan in Nieuwegein .  Wi-Fi, today, is popular among numerous institutions such as firms, schools and libraries and is used to purposes such as research and communication. It has made work easier and is on high demand despite being expensive and unaffordable to most people. Incorporation of free Wi-Fi in towns, cities, schools and other public environments to be accessed by the public would be of great benefit to societal well-being. This is because the work of many individuals would be improved thereby promoting efficiency. This paper discusses the positive effects of free Wi-Fi on students, in curbing emergencies, in strengthening relationships and on improvement of cities.

Schools require access to the internet because it is a rich source of educational information that is of use to both students and teachers. The provision of free Wi-Fi to schools by the government will help students access this information easily and freely and use whatever they find necessary for their studies, research and projects. They can also access information that may be missing from their books or libraries from relevant websites. This improves the content of a students work and increases his or her knowledge of the respective topic resulting to better academic performance. Other than acquisition of academic information, students can acquire knowledge on how to deal with their problems immediately, for example, if a student has a problem preparing a certain essay, he or she can use the internet to obtain correct formats and steps for preparing the required paper from his her location without having to purchase a book or seek help from a friend or a teacher. This helps them save on time. Lastly, most students are not financially liberal and have restrained budgets. Providing free Wi-Fi for them will reduce their bills and therefore prevent them from experiencing financial problems that may affect their academic performance. Most people may argue that provision of internet in schools will promote entertainment of students and not education. However, with correct supervision, free Wi-Fi will promote better learning in schools and good performance by students.

The public environment is ever busy with activity and it’s natural for situations to turn out in unexpected ways. We may claim that free Wi-Fi may not be useful in these situations. However, certain emergencies can actually be controlled or solved by use of Wi-Fi especially in cases where the victim is by him or herself. For instance, when an individual is robbed of   his or her Phone or laptop or she can get help online in different ways. One, he or she can contact a relevant company’s support team or customer service via email requesting for assistance for example, deactivation of an account such as whatsapp. Secondly one who has no idea what her is she should do can simply ask what to do online. One can also change his or her accounts pins and passwords immediately through email. This is all possible where individuals have easy and instant access to Wi-Fi.  Individuals can also make internet calls requesting for assistance. Wi-Fi can be important in providing security or help during such emergencies especially if it is accessible in different and convenient area and cities and is affordable or free.

Relationships are fostered by proper communication between people. This is because it allows keep in touch with one another. In today’s society, communication is advanced and most of the methods are digital. People keep in touch with one another through social media. Analogue methods such as letter writing and use of messengers are no longer popular. This is because social media is faster, less tedious, cheaper where people can chat freely and more efficient. It has made ways of keeping in touch better because people can do more than just pass a message. Social media has enabled sharing of pictures and videos, video calls, where people miles apart can see each other through a call. For Example soldiers who are away from home communicate with their families through such ways. This enables people feel closer to each other through sharing of memorable moments and other aspects taking place in their lives strengthening their kinship bonds. Social media also allows people make new friends online. For this to be possible, wireless networks must be available. A world without Wi-Fi would cripple communication. The provision of Free Wi-Fi by the government will promote stronger relationships because it allows efficient and easy communication.

Cities are built and developed by contribution of both the government and by the people. Most economic, social and political activities require use of Wi-Fi to either communicate research or run their various activities. Free access to the internet has various benefits on improvement of these cities. First, most entrepreneurs today advertise their goods and services on the internet ,this enables them create an open wide world market that enables generation of large profits as well as promotes easy communication between them and their clients. Secondly, it creates employment opportunities for citizens enabling them generate income and live lives of better standards. Here Individuals can serve as technicians to install this wireless network, engineers or service providers on the internet among others .Lastly; Wi-Fi promotes the passage of economic information and news concerning a city or the country at large from media to people as well as from one person to another. However most of these entrepreneurs and other citizens cannot comfortably afford or access Wi-Fi because it is expensive. It is therefore necessary for the government to take up the role of helping its citizens access this wireless network by providing it to them freely.

In conclusion, it is evident that Wi-Fi is a technological advancement that is popular and of great importance in today’s society, both academically and economically. It also helps in the management of various emergencies and promotion of communication of people for economic reasons. Despite its popularity, it is an expensive technology and most individuals cannot afford or access it with ease.  Schools, cities and the general public require government intervention that would greatly influence use of the internet and promote positive progress in various fields’. Free Wi-Fi for public use is therefore a necessity in today society. This is to promote its easy access to citizens and positively influence economic, social and academic positive progress.

Work cited

Becker, S,Crandall M.D.,Fisher,K .E,Kinney B.,Landry C. and Rocha A. (2010) Opportunity For All : How The American Public Benefits From Internet Access.

 

Deception in Psychology can either be Ethical or Unethical

Ethics is a tricky portion in research, with Deception and research gradually becoming a critical area of discussion. Regularly researchers employ deception when studying humans’ innermost deeds. In other occasions, researchers also use deception to prevent biasness or any form of suffering to the subject such as falsely acquiring money from them for information. Belmont 1979 was a report that viewed deception as unethical and was clashing with the ethical prime of consent. Deception is acceptable when researching large crowd rather than individuals since this may lead to lack of distrust between patient and health staff. In this case study,deception was ethical since it involved carrying out research on a broad range of university students. However, McCamberidge and his colleagues assert “Deception in thepsychology laboratory with comparatively individual participants may cause anethical dilemma that differs from those arising in the less forced context of studies involving a crowd of people (2013).

Research was done on one of the leading medical institutions that had a rise on the number of deaths and complaints. During the study, the researchers mimicked a sick patient till they were admittedto the hospital. The researcher’s motive was to find out how nurses and doctors occasionally monitor the illpatientsthroughconversing with patients over medical faults that lead to many death cases (Mazor&Gurwitz, 2004).In this kind of study, the researcher deceives everyone in the hospital including other patients and doctors about hiscondition. Deception in this aspect is considered ethical since the researcher’s aim is to prevent biasness as well as gain right-hand information without causing any suffering to any patient. Also deception is justified, since if some of the doctors and nurses knew of the researchers’ intention, it would lead to misleading information masking the true picture of the hospital.

Reference

McCambridge, J., Kypri, K., Bendtsen, P., & Porter, J. (2013).The exercise of deception in public health behavioral intervention trials: A case study of three online alcohol tests.The American Journal of Bioethics, 13(11), 39-47.

 

Mazor, K. M., Simon, S. R., &Gurwitz, J. H. (2004).Talking with patients about medical errors: a review of the literature.Archives of internal medicine, 164(15), 1690-1697.

Health Policy Analysis: CVD Prevention For Asian Americans.

ABSTRACT.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a condition that occurs in the heart, whereby the blood vessels become blocked or narrow. This diseases usually results in heart attacks, strokes and angina (chest pains). Cardiovascular disease similar to other heart conditions is typically caused by individual’s lifestyle choices such as smoking, obesity, unhealthy diets and a lack of exercise. Within the Asian American community, CVD amongst the elderly is a common occurrence and has been one of the leading causes of deaths within the community. According to the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI),Asian Americans were the second group after non-Hispanic whites to die of CVD.  The causes of CVD varied from the different types of Asians that made up the community, who had differing perspectives on life.

Asian American community consists of sub groups that include: Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Filipinos and Asian Indians. These communities have differing culture and lifestyles, but are always grouped together in surveys because they have similar socioeconomic backgrounds. It is imperative to look at the various cultural aspect of the communities because this analysis will be focusing their lifestyle, which is largely based on their cultures.

INTRODUCTION.

Amongst the various immigrant communities in America, Asian Americans are considered to be the fastest growing groups and according to Larsen LJ (2003, pg. 20-51) they make up 25% of the population. The reason for this being that the community is made up of various sub groups from the Asian continent i.e. Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese etc. The reason for these differing Asian communities being lumped together is because a majority of them share the same socioeconomic background.  As well as being the largest growing ethnic group in the US, they also possess one of the highest mortality rates caused by Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD).

CVD usually occurs as a result of an individual’s lifestyle choices, such as their diet. A build of plaque in the arteries which causes them to become narrow or blocked entirely is the basis of CVD. In many Asian diets, it is usually unbalanced and mainly consists of fatty and starchy foods. For instance,majority of Chinese foods are deep fried i.e. Fried egg rolls or fried rice. For the prevention of CVD within this community, there would have to be a modification in the diet.

A lack of exercising is also one of the leading causes of CVD and an increase in it can prevent older Asian Americans from getting heart attacks, strokes or chest pains. Exercising in the Asian community is uncommon, especially amongst the older generation. A study conducted by Texas Obesity Research Centre showed that compared to White Americans, Asians where less likely to partake in any physical activities. However, older Asians where seen to be more active than their counterparts, but the Asian migrants where less active than the US born Asians.

Background.

CVD amongst the elderly Asian Americans needs to be addressed by the American Heart Association because they are more susceptible to CVD than any other ethnic groups in the US. Klatsky et al (2005, pg. 26-31) conducted a survey in California to show which groups had higher rates of CVD. The study showed that Asian Indians had four times higher rate of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) than any other ethnicity. They noted that Asian Indians had a higher level of CAD compared to other Asians as well, and it is simply a symptom of their genetics and lifestyle choice.

However, while Asian Indians suffer most from CAD, Filipinos have a higher rate of CVD mortalities according to Ye J et al (2009, pg. 718-723).This is due to the higher smoking prevalence amongst Filipino men, while Vietnamese men have lower rate due to their abstinence from alcohol.

Texas Obesity Research in 2010 executed a survey on the correlation between physical activities and obesity between Asian Americans and non-Asian Americans. They concluded that 61% of Asians had low rates of Physical activities. Older Asians were more active than younger Asians, and US born Asians were more active than Asian migrants. This showed that it was important to inject physical activities into the Asian cultures.

Studies showing a relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and CVD amongst Asians has shown that Asian BMI is lower than white Americans.  Which means that the boundaries used for defining obesity needs to be reduced for Asians worldwide, due to the original threshold failing to consider differences in fat distribution amongst Asians.

 Research Questions

  1. How can the American Heart Association help prevent CVD for older Asian American community members?
  2. Can prevention of CVD be achieved through a modification of their diet and physical activity?
  3. Will the intervention of the American Heart Association help reduce the mortality rate caused by CVD amongst the older Asian American?
  4. How long will the measures taken to prevent CDV take yield any tangible results?
  5. Why is it important that CVD amongst the elderly Asian Americans be prevented?

Landscape Section.

Identified Stakeholders:

  • Asian American Communities: Koreans, Japanese, Filipinos, Chinese, Vietnamese and Asian Indians.
  • American Heart Association.
  • Pharmaceutical companies for CAD, CVD drugs.
  • US Public Health Agency Officials.
  • Secretary of Health.

Option Section.

Option 1.

A large scale campaign educating Asian Americans on CVD will be conducted in Asian American neighbourhoods. The campaign will create awareness on what CVD is, what causes CVD and how it can be prevented. The campaign will be delivered in English as well as the areas dominant Asian language i.e. Cantonese, Korean or Urdu. Awareness will be spread through the use of flyers, pop up clinics and face to face speeches. Due medical resources being costly, the campaign would require a large budget. It is important that local political leaders be advised to partake in the campaign so as to encourage Asian Americans to partake as well. The campaign targets a complex and existing issue so it would take time for tangible results to be yielded.

Option 2.

To encourage members of the community to increase their levels of physical activities as well as modify their diet to be more balanced. CVD is mainly caused by unbalanced diets and a lack of exercise. Make sure that older Asian members understand the importance of this change in lifestyle, by highlighting the benefits of these changes. A balanced and healthy diet plan should also be created for the community members so that they are able to gain some semblance of what kind of change is required. Encouraging exercise can be achieved by the creation of outdoor community activities that would bring the communities together such as soccer leagues etc.

RECOMMENDATIONS

When attempting to prevent CVD amongst the older Asian American community members, the American Heart Association should consider the second option. This is because it is long term solution that would yield a higher level of prevention. It is creating awareness about the dangers of CVD as well as providing solutions to tackle and prevent CVD in the community. The option is also cost effective, whereby the most of the cost would be on seeking the expert advised of a nutritionist to create a balanced and healthy diet plan. The concept of bringing together the community to partake in recreational activities so as to get more active is more conductive because it creates an environment where individuals encourage each other to exercise more and be more active.

REFERENCES

Klatsky AL, Friedman GD, Sidney S, Kipp H, Kubo A, Armstrong MA (2005). Risk of haemorrhagic stroke in Asian American ethnic groups. Neuroepidemiology. (25:26–31).

Klatsky AL, Tekawa I, Armstrong MA, Sidney S (1994). The risk of hospitalization for ischemic heart disease among Asian Americans in northern California. Am J Public Health. (84:1672–1675).

Larsen LJ (2004). The foreign born population in the United States: 2003. Current Population Reports.(P20–551).

Tang H, Shimizu R, Chen MS., Jr (2005).  English language proficiency and smoking prevalence among California’s Asian Americans. Cancer.  104(12 suppl):2982–2988

US Census Bureau. Table C05003D (2006–2008). Sex by age by nativity (Asian aloneAmerican Community Survey

Ye J, Rust G, Baltrus P, Daniels E (2009). Cardiovascular risk factors among Asian Americans: results from a National Health Survey. Ann Epidemiol. (19:718–723)

 

How to Make Our Ideas Clear Summary

Part 1

The descriptions Logicians use to determine whether ideas or conceptions are clear or obscure and distinct or confused need clarification. Those that are clear will always be recognized whenever they are met and none will be mistaken for them for they have been fully apprehended. Furthermore they define distinct ideas or conceptions to be those that contain nothing that is not clear. From the definition, we can already see that nothing is obscure meaning they are contradicting themselves. The author Peirce compares this clearness to familiarity later on.

Such definitions need reconstruction for they were useful to the “extinct” philosophies, and they don’t fully cover the definitions of the words.  For example, “Clear” as defined can be too strong, when looking at the point of view where prodigious intellect will never mistake one idea for another but also too weak, for it may only refer to feeling of mastery that is subjective.

Descartes substituted authority of Scholastics for certitude of self-consciousness without noticing that an idea’s distinction being clear from its distinction. Leibniz differed with Descartes but had interest in abstract definition that the mind cannot function without empirical inputs and new things cannot be learnt by analyzing definitions clearness is therefore giving an abstract definition and logic should teach us how to make new ideas clear.

Part 2

There are principles that describe methods of reaching high clearness of thought. Thought is meant to produce belief. Our intellectual activity is stimulated by doubt and hesitancy; we attain belief when we come to a decision. There are two elements of consciousness on analogy; music with melody and orderliness and tones or notes. Then there are two objects of consciousness; those we are immediately conscious of and those we are mediately conscious of. Belief has three properties, existence (we are aware of it), it appeases doubt and it establishes our actions. It is the closing phrase in the symphony of our life. The identification of habit is how it leads us to act under different circumstances leading us to what is practical and tangible. Therefore, the third rule of obtaining clearness is considering effects with tangible bearing we conceive the objects of our conceptions have.

Part 3

Illustration of rule by some examples:

  • Defining the hardness of a diamond Free will and fate; weight; force

Part 4

Real is that whose characters are independent of what anyone might think them to be. It consists of sensible effects which things partaking it produce. The only effect that real things have is to cause belief. However there is true belief and false belief. Many philosophers do not hold truth strongly; they are governed by arguments, authority and disputation unlike scientists who apply different methods but come to the same results. Reality therefore depends on what is thought about it but has to be agreed to by all who investigate about it. This is what truth is and reality is the object represented by it. Our ideas may be clear without being true.

Financial Analysis of Men’s Wearhouse Retail Company

 

Introduction

The financial health of a company is a direct reflection to the wellbeing of a company. The financial health of a company is derived from numerous and complex scrutiny of financial statements. This is done through the use of ratio analysis to compare a company current performance with its previous period performances as well as comparing it to the industrial performance for the year. It is important for investors to ascertain the financial health of any company before they invest in it (Carl, Reeve and Duchac, 2015). This is because it has an effect on their earnings as the financial health of a company determines its ability to pay dividends. Financially healthy companies tend to have stability in the value of their stocks’ which is advantageous to the investor.  In this paper I will critically analyze the financial health of Men’s wear Inc. Company and advice on whether it is financially prudent to invest in the company.

Company Overview

Men’s Wearhouse Company Inc. is a clothing retail company with its headquarters based in Houston Texas, united states.  It was founded by George Zimmer in 1973. It is classified as a service company. The company in association with its subsidiaries operates as a specialized unit specializing in the production of designer men’s wear as well as children tuxedos and apparels. It also produces accessories such as women’s shoes. Its specialty however is in men’s clothing where it produces products such as dress shirts, sportswear, outerwear, shoes, suits, suit separates, sport coats, slacks and other accessories for men. The company operatesthrough two segments the retail section and the corporate section. The retail section deals with the sale of clothing to the final customer. The corporate section deals with the wholesale trading of corporate products such as corporate uniforms. The company operates under many brand names which include; Jos A. Bank, Moores clothing for men, Men’s wear house and Tux, Men’s Wearhouse and K&G. Its corporate section operates under brand names that include Dimensions, Alexandra and Yaffy brands. These brands are managed through managed corporate accounts, catalogs and the internet. The company has further diversified its operations and is involved in provision of dry cleaning services, laundry and in heir looming activities.

The company has around 1760 stores located in North America and the UK. Under its brand name Moores, it operates 120 stores in Canada. Newly acquired brand name Jos A. Bank operates about 330 stores. Its K&G brand name caters for low income customers and also sells women career wear. The brandname operates about 100 stores. The company faces both direct and indirect competition. Its main competitors include Abercrombie and Fitch Company, Aeropostale Inc., American eagle outfitters Inc., Ross stores Inc., Ann stores Inc. and Burlington stores among many other competitors.

Horizontal Analysis of the Financial Statements of Men’s Wear Inc. Company

Three Years Horizontal Analysis of the Company’s Income Statement

The company’s cost of goods sold increased from 1,333.8 million dollars in 2012 to 1380.1 million in 2013, a 3.46% increase. It also increased from 1380.1 million dollars in 2013 to 1384.2 million dollars in 2014 representing a 0.30% increase in cost of goods sold. Over the three year period the cost of goods increases by 3.78%. Gross profits in year 2012 amounted to 1048.9 increasing to 1,108.2 million dollars in 2013 representing a 5.65% increase. Gross profit for the period ended 2014 amounted to 1089.0 million dollars a reduction of 1.73%. Selling general and administrative expenses amounted to 859.1 million in 2012 and 910.6 million in 2013. This was a 6.0% increase in the expenses. This amount increased to 921.5 million in 2014 representing a 1.12% increase in selling general and administrative expenses of Men’s Wear House Inc. interest expenses as at January 2012 stood at 1.4 million dollars increasing to 1.5 million dollars in 2013 representing a 7.14% increase in the expense. The amount further increased to 3.2 million in 2014 which is a 113.33% increase in the expense from the previous year. Interest and investment income as at January 2012 amounted to 0.4 million increasing by 50% in 2013 amounting to 0.6 million for the year. The amount drops in 2014 from 0.6 to 0.4 million representing a 33.3% drop in the income. This changes in expenses and income influences Earnings Before Taxes (EBT) which increases from 184.4 million in 2012 to 197.7 million in 2013 a 7.21% increase. The figure drops to 126.8 million in 2014 which is a 35.8% drop in earnings. Income tax expense increases from 63.9 million in 2012 to 65.6 million in 2013 a 2.66% increase. The amount reduces to 42.6 million in 2014 representing a 35.1% drop in the expense. Minority interest in earnings stands at 0.1 million in 2012 dropping to -0.3 million in 2013. This represents a 400% drop. This figure further drops to -0.4 million in 2014 a 25% drop in the amount. Earnings from continuing operations amounted to 120.5 million in 2012 increasing to 132.1 million in 2013 representing a 9.6% increase in income. As a result of the above changes net income increases from 120.6 million in 2012 to 131.7 million in 2013, which is a 9.2% increase in income. The figure drops to 83.8 million in 2014 a 36.3% decrease in income. Net income to common including extraordinary items increased from 119.1 in 2012 to 130.2 million in 2013 which is a 9.3% increase. The figure drops to 83.3 million in 2014 representing a 36.2% decrease.

 

 

Horizontal Analysis of the Balance Sheet

Cash and cash equivalents of the company stand at 125,306 dollars in February 2012 increasing by 24.5% to 156,063 in 2013. This amount reduces to 59,252 representing a 62.0% decrease in cash and cash equivalents. Net receivables for the year period ended February 2012 stood at 56,669 increasing to 63,010 in 2013 which is an11.2% increase. The figure further rises to 63,153 dollars which is a 0.22% increase. Inventory decreases from 572502 in 2012 to 556531 in 2013 representing a decrease of 2.78%. The figure increases to 599486 in 2014, which is a 7.2% increase in the amount. Other current assets stood at 70,906 in 2012 rising to 79549 in 2013 a 12.2% rise in the figure.

Property, plant and equipment rose from 355717 in 2012 to 389118 in 2013 an increase of 9.4%. The figure further rose to 408162 in 2014 a rise of 4.89% over the period. Goodwill amounted to 87782 in 2012 rising to 87835 which is an increase of 0.06%. The amount rose further to 126,003 in 2014 representing a 43.5% increase in the amount. Other assets stood at 103359 in 2012 rising to 131,799 an increase of 27.4%. The amount rose by 12.2% settling at 147941 in 2014. Total assets increased from 1,405,952 in 2012 to 1,496,347 in 2013 and 1,555,230 in 2014. This represented a 6.4% and 3.9% increase for two periods. Accounts payable increased from 281,275 in 2012 to 294,183 in 2013 representing a 4.58% increase. This amount rose by 10.5% in 2014 with the amount totaling 325,289 dollars. Deferred long term liability charges stood at 92858 in 2012 increasing to 92,929 in 2013; a 0.07% increase. Liability to minority interest amounted to 12659 in 2012 rising to 12980 in 2013 representing a 2.5% rise. The amount further rose by 7.38% amounting to 14014 in 2014. Total liabilities amounted to 382,792 dollars increasing to 400,082 dollars in 2013 representing an increase of 4.5%.this figure increased to 546,095 in 2014 a rise of 36.5%. The value of common stock for Men’s house wear Inc. for the year 2012 amounted to 718 thousand dollars rising to 725 thousand in 2013.                      This represents an increase of 0.97%. The figure drops by 34.3% in 2014 amounting to 476. Retained earnings for the company amounted to 1,095,535 thousand in 2012 rising to 1,190,246 thousand in 2013 which is an increase of 8.64%. This figure drops by 51.9% in 2014 amounting to 572712 thousand dollars. Treasury stock as at February 2012 amounted to 476,749 thousand increasing to 517,894 thousand an increase of 8.6%. This figure drops by 99.1% amounting to 3,407 thousand. Capital surpluses for the year ended February 2012 amounted to 362,735 thousand increasing to 386,254 an increase of 6.48%. This increases further to 412,043 thousand an increase of 6.6% in 2014. Other stockholder equity amounted to 36,921 increasing to 36,924 an increase of 0.002%. The value then dropped to 27,311 a reduction of 26.01%. Total stakeholder equity amounted to 1,019,160 thousand in 2012 increasing to 1,096,255 an increase of 7.5%. This value reduces to 1,009,135 thousand a drop of 7.4%. Net tangible assets amounted to 897,667 thousand in 2012 increasing to 975,978 in 2013 a rise of 8.4%. This reduces slightly to 825,105 thousand a drop of 15.45% in 2014.

Horizontal analysis is important for comparison purposes. Through horizontal analysis it is easy to assess changes in the different items in the balance sheet and income statement (Pamela and Fabozzi 2012). It’s also easier to compare the performance of a company against an industrial benchmark or to compare a company’s performance to previous period performances. This is because horizontal analysis can be done on any item of the income and balance sheet.

 

 

 

Ratio Analysis

Current Ratio

Current assets/current liabilities

2014

=815,097/335,289

=2.43

2013

=825,383/281275

=2.93

Quick Ratio

Quick assets/current liabilities

2014

=721891/335289

=2.15

2013

=775,604/281275

=2.75

 

Cash to current liabilities ratio

Cash and cash equivalents/current liabilities

2014

=59,252/335289

=0.17

2013

=156,063/281275

=0.55

The company current ratio of 2.43 in 2014 and 2.93 in 2013 is very high indicating the company’s strong liquidity power. This means that the company is able to deal with its current liabilities by utilizing its current assets. The company’s Quick ratio of 2.15 in 2014 and 2.75 in 2013 is high and indicates that the company is able to meet its current liabilities if they arose at a moment’s notice. Its cash to current liabilities is low at 0.17 in 2014 and 0.55 in 2013. This means that the company cannot meet all of its current liabilities by utilizing only its cash and cash equivalents. It is however not clear whether the items termed as cash equivalents qualify to be categorized under cash and this maybe a cause of error in the ratios. An analysis of competitors’ financial ratios indicates that Men’s wear is ahead especially in Earnings per share ratio at 0.11 compared with its main competitor Burlington stores Inc. which has an EPS of -1.79. Competitors quick and current ratios indicate an industry with low liquidity levels although Men’s wearhouse is an exception.

 

Recommendation

It is clear that Men’s wearhouse Inc. is a financially stable company with very strong financial ratios. It is able to deal with its current liabilities and it is highly liquid. This means that dividends declared will be paid in time to the investors (Daniel 2011). The company’s income statement indicates a highly profitable company with slight changes over the three year period. The company assets also increase over the three year period indicating a company with steady growth. Having analyzed the company’s financial statements, I would recommend an investor to invest in the stocks of Men’s Wearhouse as they are sure to earn returns on their investments.

References

Daniel Peris. (2011). The Strategic Dividend Investor. New York: McGraw Hill Professional.

Pamela P, and Fabozzi, F. (2012). Analysis of Financial Statements. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Carl, W., Reeve, J., and Duchac, J. (2015). Accounting. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Quality Improvement Paper based on PICOT

In the contemporary medical world, questions over the efficacy of the use of the probiotics in the prevention of Clostridium difficle-mediated diarrhea, which is a side effect of antibiotic utilization, linger in the minds of many scientists. That is the case given there is no consensus on whether such an inclusion in the treatment plan of patients on antibiotics will result in an effect of this kind or not. Such a state of affairs necessitates a quick fix that will bring in harmony to the already in use health care sector’s guidelines of infection management. As such, this paper aims to seek clarity on this matter by a review of the literature to establish the current state of the evidence.

Background

Dietrich, Kottmann, and Alavi, (2014) are of the opinion that 5-49% of patients on antibiotics suffer from diarrhea. More specifically, 10-25% of the diarrhea cases are due to the Clostridium difficile, which poses a severely life-threatening condition. Such a statistic of the antibiotic-associated diarrhea is disheartening. Moreover, it has necessitated a rethink of the management strategy adopted in the clinical management of infections. The ramification of this kind of evaluation process is the development of new strategies. A case in point of such newly adopted measures is the use probiotics in preventing diarrhea. Information about its efficacy as a preventive measure for antibiotic-associated diarrhea abounds, but discrepancies are manifest across the findings of those studies. That notwithstanding, a paucity of studies that look into the specific doses and strains, which are effective for a particular population exists. As such, there is a need for such research that will focus on meeting this goal.

History of Probiotics and Antibiotics use in Clinical Practice.According to Angelakis, Merhej, and Raoult, (2013), the use of probiotics and antibiotics in clinical practice owes its origin to its efficacy in improving agricultural outcomes. Additionally, the first reports of probiotics date back more than 100 years ago (Issa, & Moucari, 2014). Over the years, the reliance on the probiotics and antibiotics has grown significantly because their concurrent usage has shown to yield good health care outcomes.

Definitionrelated to probiotic use. The literature has used various terms associated with this topic worse meanings are worth noting. They include the following:

Probiotics.They are commonly located in dietary supplements or yogurts and constitute possibly beneficial bacteria or yeast, which help in the maintenance of equilibrium the bacteria in the intestinal lumen (Goldenberg, Lytvyn, Steurich, Parkin, Mahant, & Johnston, 2015).

Antibiotic-associated diarrhea.It refers to the type diarrhea that occurs soon after the disturbance of the normal flora equilibrium causing pathogenic bacteria to multiply significantly in the intestinal tract (Issa, & Moucari, 2014).

Clostridium difficle.A spore-forming rod Gram-positive bacterium whose first description was in 1935 after its contribution to the development of newborn infections (Issa, & Moucari, 2014).

Current Management Protocols of Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea. Individuals suffering from the antibiotic-associated form of diarrhea are subject to isolation until stool cultures have proven beyond reasonable doubt that this case of diarrhea is not Clostridium difficile-mediated diarrhea (Dietrich, Kottmann, & Alavi, 2014). Such a management strategy lowers the quality of care that the isolated patients receive, which is unacceptable. It is more common in hospitals that lack a microbiology department within its premises. However, this should not be the case in this era of nosocomial infections like Clostridium difficile-mediated diarrhea, which have a high potential of killing many people(Dietrich, Kottmann, & Alavi, 2014).

Significance of the Topic

As reported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2013), in the USA, the prevalence rate of Clostridium difficle-mediated diarrhea that is secondary to the use of antibiotics particularly the broad-spectrum ones is approximately 250,000 hospitalized patients. That notwithstanding, it accounts for a further 14000 deaths annually, which is the largest proportion of the 23000 deaths annually due to infections in the USA. Such a high prevalence rate has a huge financial implication because the cost of treating persons with infections has further shot up due to the inevitability of diarrhea as a side effect of antibiotic use. For instance, Ebm, Cecconi, Moran, Rhodes, and Rahman (2013) estimated that approximately £13,272.53 was the amount needed to treat an individual with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Such statistics are worrying given that infections are inevitable across the developmental stages of a human being.

As such, this topic proves to be worthwhile given that a proof of the efficacy of probiotics in preventing the diarrhea conundrum will be of utmost importance to the rectifying of the current situation. That is a fact because upon establishing the use of probiotics comes with this benefit, and its subsequent institutionalization will result in the incidences of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic utilization as well as the cost of treatment reducing significantly.

Statement of Purpose

Of utmost significance to this quality improvement project is the establishment of the efficacy of probiotics in lowering the incidence of the Clostridium difficle-mediated diarrhea in patients on antibiotics. In essence, that is the sole purpose and specific goal of this project. Central to the meeting of this primary goal of the project is specific objectives, which are as follows:

  • To determine the efficacy of probiotic use in the prevention of Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea
  • To investigate the commonly used probiotic strains in the management Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea
  • To establish the adverse effects related to probiotic use in treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea mediated by Clostridium difficle

The PICOT question that will facilitate meeting the purpose and specific objectives of the project is:

In patients receiving antibiotics (P) what is the effect of a standing order for probiotics (I) compared to the current practice (C) on the overall incidence of C. Diff (O) over 3 months (T)?

Search Strategy

Central to the adopted search strategy were two online databases, namely, PubMed, which was the primary source of studies and COCHRANE Library. In both databases, the PICOT question was of the essence in the identification of the search key terms used in the determination of articles focusing on establishing the efficacy of probiotics use with antibiotics in the management of diarrhea. In the pursuit of literature in the PubMed, the Medical subject heading (MeSH) terms included probiotics, antibiotics, and diarrhea. On the other hand, in the COCHRANE Library search, the general terms used were probiotics, antibiotics, diarrhea and Clostridium difficle. Lastly, for the enhancement of accuracy, the search applied the use of filters such as studies conducted within the last ten years and the English language. 10 out of the possible 200 studies that met the criteria were reviewed. Details of the search strategy are as depicted in the table below.

Database searched Search terms

General:

MeSH:

Years searched Number of articles identified Number of articles included Number of articles excluded
PubMed MeSH:

·         “probiotics”

·         “diarrhea”

·         “antibiotics”

·         2013-2017

·         2008-2013

·         80

·         50

·         6

·         1

·         74

·         49

COCHRANELibrary General:

·         “probiotics”

·         “Clostridium difficle

·         “diarrhea”

·         “antibiotics”

·         2013-2017

·         2008-2013

·         50

·         20

·         3

·         0

·         47

·         20

 

Summary of Articles Reviewed

Central to this review of the literature, were three key themes, namely, efficacy of probiotic use in the prevention of Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea, commonly used probiotic strains and adverse effects related to probiotic use.

Efficacy of probiotic use in the prevention of Clostridium difficleassociated diarrhea

Five of the reviewed articles looked into the efficacy of probiotics in prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea secondary to Clostridium difficle. They established that probiotic use was an effective preventive measure of the Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea as well as reduced its incidence (Angelakis, Merhej, & Raoult, 2013; Preidis & Versalovic, 2009; Sokol, 2014; Fox, Ahuja, Robertson, Ball, & Eri 2014; Dietrich, Kottmann, & Alavi, 2014).

However, Allen, Wareham, Wang, Bradley, Hutchings, Harris, and Mack, (2013) in their study had a contrary opinion that probiotics with a combination of two strains were not effective in either reducing the incidence of the Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea or preventing its occurrence. The quality of evidence in this deduction is high since the researchers utilized a randomized controlled trial to test their hypothesis, which yields high-quality evidence. Despite this study being a high-level quality source of information, its findings may not determine the final say on this issue. That is for sure given that its focus was on the use of probiotics that come as in mixture preparation while the preliminary studies utilized probiotics, which are containing a single strain to test its efficacy.

Commonly used probiotic strains

From the literature, several strains of probiotics played a significant role in either preventing Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea or lowering its incidence. They include Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, Clostridium butyricum and Bifidobacterium infantis (Goldenberg, Lytvyn, Steurich, Parkin, Mahant & Johnston, 2015; McFarland, 2015; Issad & Moucari, 2014; Dietrich, Kottmann, & Alavi, 2014).

Furthermore, two more studies depicted that mixtures of the probiotic strains attained better outcomes in patients with Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea. A case in point Ling, Liu, Cheng, Luo, Yuan, Li, and Xiang, (2015) established that a mixture of the Clostridium butyricum combined with Bifidobacterium infantis showed a greater efficacy than a single strain of each of this probiotic agent. Additionally, in another study, it became apparent that a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, as well as a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus offered positive outcomes in patients with Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea (McFarland, 2015).

Adverse effects associated with probiotic use

The reviewed studies, which aimed at establishing the safety of probiotics use, observed that they were safe since they had little or no side effects at all. Among the noted side effects for persons on probiotics included abdominal cramps, rash, taste disturbance, increased phlegm, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal bloating, constipation, chest pain, flatulence, and low appetite (Goldenberg, Lytvyn, Steurich, Parkin, Mahant & Johnston, 2015; Issad & Moucari, 2014). The identified side effects are less likely to occur in immune-competent individuals while the immune-compromised persons are at high risk of exhibiting these side effects (Goldenberg, Lytvyn, Steurich, Parkin, Mahant & Johnston, 2015).

Conclusion

Concisely, from the analysis of literature, it is clear that the use of probiotics in medical practice is one that has not gathered popularity in the health sector. However, this should not be the case given that the studies have shown that incorporation of the probiotics in the management plan can be of great benefit to the patient. Despite the availability of evidence in studies on the efficacy of probiotics in the management of diarrheal infections mediated by Clostridium difficle, there are significant gaps in the literature that are worth noting.

Major Gaps in the Literature

A typical gap in the reviewed literature is that all the studies fail to identify a particular probiotic strain that is effective in the control of Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea. Besides, the studies fail to identify, which of the population stand to benefit most from the inclusion of probiotics in the infection management plan. That notwithstanding, information on the danger of the routine use of the probiotics is also lacking.Last but not the least, the studies fail to identify the dosage of the probiotics that will be effective in preventing the Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea.

Implications

Given the existence of the noted gaps in the literature, there is a need for more studies that will help enhance clarity on this issue. The areas of focus that the future studies may devote their efforts include but not limited to the dosage, specific strains and adverse effects of long-term use of probiotics.There is a need for more evidence in these areas if the use of probiotics alongside the antibiotics is to become a mainstay practice for the management of diarrhea in the days to come. Upon institutionalization of probiotics in the treatment protocols of infection, the harsh effects of Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea will becomeavoidable, and the quality of care will improve significantly.

References

Allen, S. J., Wareham, K., Wang, D., Bradley, C., Hutchings, H., Harris, W., … & Mack, D. (2013). Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile diarrhea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. The Lancet382(9900), 1249-1257.

Angelakis, E., Merhej, V., & Raoult, D. (2013). Related actions of probiotics and antibiotics on gut microbiota and weight modification. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70179-8

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,. (2013). CDC Features – Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the US. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 5 March 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/features/antibioticresistancethreats/

Dietrich, C. G., Kottmann, T., & Alavi, M. (2014). Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG20(42), 15837.

Ebm, C., Cecconi, M., Moran, C., Rhodes, A., & Rahman, T. (2013). Cost implication of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and the financial impact of probiotic use in its prevention. Critical Care17(S2), P83.

Fox, M. J., Ahuja, K. D., Robertson, I. K., Ball, M. J., & Eri, R. D. (2015). Can probiotic yogurt prevent diarrhea in children on antibiotics? A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. BMJ open5(1), e006474.

Goldenberg, J.Z, Lytvyn, L., Steurich, J., Parkin, P., Mahant, S., & Johnston, B.C. (2015). Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12(CD004827).

Issa, I., & Moucari, R. (2014). Probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: Do we have a verdict?. World journal of gastroenterology: WJG20(47), 17788.

Ling, Z., Liu, X., Cheng, Y., Luo, Y., Yuan, L., Li, L., & Xiang, C. (2015). Clostridium butyricum combined with Bifidobacterium infantis probiotic mixture restores fecal microbiota and attenuates systemic inflammation in mice with antibiotic-associated diarrhea. BioMed research international2015.

McFarland, L. V. (2015). Probiotics for the primary and secondary prevention of C. difficile infections: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Antibiotics4(2), 160-178.

Preidis, G. A., & Versalovic, J. (2009). Targeting the Human Microbiome With Antibiotics, Probiotics, and Prebiotics: Gastroenterology Enters the Metagenomics Era. Gastroenterology, 136(6), 2015–2031. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2009.01.072

Sokol, H. (2014). Probiotics and antibiotics in IBD. Digestive Diseases, 32, 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1159/000367820