Complications in young adults with early-onset type 2 diabetes, is the research problem in the article by Hiller and Pedula. This provides focus of the research and overview of the research, the information that will be discussed in this article will focus on this research problem. it gives direction to the researcher. The research problem shows that there are complications that are involved in adults with diabetes type 2.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes from age 18-44 years are more likely to develop complications after diagnosis than adults diagnosed at the age of 45 and above. The purpose of the research narrows down the research problem. The researcher knows exactly what to do and the data to collect (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
The literature review in this article is obtained from electronic medical, laboratory and pharmacy records. The type 2 diabetes is escalating tremendously in the modern society. People with obesity have increased by 70%. Obesity has increased in adults aged 18-29 years. On the other hand, type 2 diabetes has increased by 70% in adults aged 30-39 years. This is a problem to young growing adults. Both health problems are in the increase for the young adults. Even though there is increase in these two health problems among young adults, there are no known outcomes in this age group. For the population that is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, there has been no complications noted. There is no evident the whether these complications differ with age. This literature review is from the center of health research, American diabetes association and diabetes care (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
A framework is a set of concepts that have a meaning in the field of nursing. The nurses use the framework to explain and understand more about health issues. The nursing framework in this article consists of four elements. They include health, nursing, environment and the person. Human beings are part of the nursing framework (Hiller & Pedula, 2003). Young adults represent the element of persons. Health consists of illnesses as part of the framework. Here diabetes s the illness discussed. Environment is where these human beings interact with their nurses. Nursing on the other hand involves the efforts to address health problems in the environment.
The research questions help researchers in their study. They guide them in collecting the right data for the study. Do adults diagnosed with type2 diabetes from age of 18 to 44 years aggressively develop clinical complications after diagnosis than adults with 45 and above years? The hypothesis in this research is that adults diagnosed with early onset type 2diabetes may have a distinct and aggressive phenotype (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
This study has different variables. These variables help determines different complications of diabetes type 2 among young adults. The variables are measurable characteristics that describe a population sample. Such variables include age, female sex, BMI, HbA, BDR, PDR, ESRD, Stroke, and PVD among others (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
The research design used in this paper involves comparisons of incident complication rates. Information from electronic medical, laboratory, and pharmacy records is used. Proportional hazards method is used to compare incident complications rates through 2001.7,844 adults newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 1996 and1998, were examined for this study. The research design in this study is appropriate. The population studied is high and can only be reached by studying their health records (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
The research is valid as it has tested what it was meant to test. The study aimed at testing complications involved in adults diagnosed with diabetes type 2. Results show that there were complications such as microalbuminuria, microvascular and Myocardial infarction among others found in young adults with diabetes type 2. The study solved the question on complications found in young adults with diabetes type 2 (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
This research study is faced with ethical issues of confidentiality and informed concept. There is nowhere in the study that we are told that the patients accepted that their information is used for the study. The idea of informed consent is ignored. Records are retrieved from health centers and laboratory. Results are also discussed and people with this diabetes are not consulted. Cultural aspects are found in the data provided by physicians. The population includes non Hispanic whites, African Americans, Asians, Native Americans and Hispanics (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
The population sample in this study is made up of 7,844 people. 1600 individuals are early onset and 6244 are usual onset subjects. The sample population is made up of men and women. In carrying out this research, there is a procedure that is followed. The first procedure is identification of the problem. Then the hypothesis is stated, literature is reviewed, and identification of variables. Study design is established, the sample size determined and data is collected. Data is processed and results are published (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).
Results show that the early onset and usual onset were on average obese. Their BMI was more than 30 kg/m2. The individuals that were young were at risk as they were more obese. They had a BMI of 37 vs. 33. There was no difference on the average time to insulin treatment by age of type 2 diabetes onset in adults. Young adults highly required insulin treatment than older adults (18 VS. 11%). Their HbA on onset was higher than that of adults with usual onset (8.7 vs. 81%, P<0.001). Adults with onset type 2 diabetes showed higher complications and risks that those with usual onset diabetes type 2. These results may help nurses in preventing complications involved in young adults with diabetes type 2. The results can help nurses seek for prevention measures of diabetes type 2 and obesity. In future nurses will also be able o identify complications based on the variables in this study and treat them to avoid further complications. The students nursing practice can use these results to gain knowledge about type 2 diabetes. They will also know complications involved and seek for possible solution (Hiller & Pedula, 2003).